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Alcohol-induced liver disease
Alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency
Benign liver tumors
Cholestatic liver disease
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
Primary biliary cirrhosis
Primary sclerosing cholangitis
Pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms
Familial adenomatous polyposis
Juvenile polyposis syndrome
Small bowel ischemia and infarction
Protein losing enteropathy
Short bowel syndrome (NORD)
Small bowel bacterial overgrowth syndrome
Diverticulosis and diverticulitis
Irritable bowel syndrome
Cleft lip and palate
Congenital diaphragmatic hernia
Diffuse esophageal spasm
Eosinophilic esophagitis (NORD)
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
Cyclic vomiting syndrome
Gastric dumping syndrome
Dental caries disease
Gingivitis and periodontitis
Temporomandibular joint dysfunction
Appendicitis: Pathology review
Cirrhosis: Pathology review
Colorectal polyps and cancer: Pathology review
Congenital gastrointestinal disorders: Pathology review
Diverticular disease: Pathology review
Esophageal disorders: Pathology review
Gallbladder disorders: Pathology review
Gastrointestinal bleeding: Pathology review
GERD, peptic ulcers, gastritis, and stomach cancer: Pathology review
Inflammatory bowel disease: Pathology review
Jaundice: Pathology review
Malabsorption syndromes: Pathology review
Neuroendocrine tumors of the gastrointestinal system: Pathology review
Pancreatitis: Pathology review
Viral hepatitis: Pathology review
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Abdominal hernias, also called external hernias, are when an abdominal organ, or part of an abdominal organ protrudes through the abdominal wall, usually at a site of weakness. They can be classified into midline hernias and groin hernias. Most frequent types of midline hernias are the epigastric and umbilical hernias, while groin hernias can further be classified into inguinal and femoral hernias. There’s also incisional hernias, which is when contents herniate through an incisional scar from a previous abdominal surgery
Now, the abdominal wall is made up of a few layers. The deepest layer is the visceral peritoneum, which covers many of the abdominal organs and lines the peritoneal space. That layer wraps around to form the parietal peritoneum. Then, moving externally, there is the extraperitoneal fat, the transversalis fascia, the muscle layer with the internal and external oblique and transversus abdominis aponeurosis and a layer of fascia which has different names in different regions. Ok, so anything that increases the pressure of the abdominal cavity may result in a sac that forms in the abdominal wall through which organs might protrude.
When organs protrude through the midline, that results in a midline hernia. Midline hernias include the epigastric hernia, which is when abdominal organs herniate through the linea alba, or the part of the midline between the xiphoid process and the umbilicus. With umbilical hernias, on the other hand, the organ protrudes through the umbilicus.
And then there’s groin hernias, which can be classified into inguinal hernias, the more common type, and femoral hernias.
A hernia is a protrusion of an organ or part of it through a weakened area in the wall that normally holds it in place. Abdominal wall hernias are a protrusion of the abdominal content through a defect in the abdominal wall. There exist various types of abdominal wall hernia, but ventral hernias are more common than other types and occur when the intestine, bladder, or other abdominal organs push through the abdomen wall.
Symptoms may include pain, swelling, and a feeling of weakness or pressure in the abdomen, with some of the rare but serious complications being incarceration or strangulation of an organ, mostly the bowels. A doctor can usually diagnose a hernia by examining the area and may order additional tests if needed. Abdominal wall hernias are generally treated with surgical repair of the defect.
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