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Body fluid compartments
Movement of water between body compartments
Acid-base disturbances: Pathology review
Diabetes insipidus and SIADH: Pathology review
Electrolyte disturbances: Pathology review
Renal failure: Pathology review
Acyanotic congenital heart defects: Pathology review
Adrenal masses: Pathology review
Bacterial and viral skin infections: Pathology review
Bone tumors: Pathology review
Coagulation disorders: Pathology review
Congenital neurological disorders: Pathology review
Cyanotic congenital heart defects: Pathology review
Extrinsic hemolytic normocytic anemia: Pathology review
Eye conditions: Inflammation, infections and trauma: Pathology review
Eye conditions: Refractive errors, lens disorders and glaucoma: Pathology review
Headaches: Pathology review
Intrinsic hemolytic normocytic anemia: Pathology review
Leukemias: Pathology review
Lymphomas: Pathology review
Macrocytic anemia: Pathology review
Microcytic anemia: Pathology review
Mixed platelet and coagulation disorders: Pathology review
Nasal, oral and pharyngeal diseases: Pathology review
Nephritic syndromes: Pathology review
Nephrotic syndromes: Pathology review
Non-hemolytic normocytic anemia: Pathology review
Pediatric brain tumors: Pathology review
Pediatric musculoskeletal disorders: Pathology review
Platelet disorders: Pathology review
Renal and urinary tract masses: Pathology review
Seizures: Pathology review
Viral exanthems of childhood: Pathology review
Adrenal insufficiency: Pathology review
Central nervous system infections: Pathology review
Childhood and early-onset psychological disorders: Pathology review
Congenital gastrointestinal disorders: Pathology review
Diabetes mellitus: Pathology review
Environmental and chemical toxicities: Pathology review
Gastrointestinal bleeding: Pathology review
GERD, peptic ulcers, gastritis, and stomach cancer: Pathology review
Inflammatory bowel disease: Pathology review
Medication overdoses and toxicities: Pathology review
Obstructive lung diseases: Pathology review
Pneumonia: Pathology review
Psychiatric emergencies: Pathology review
Shock: Pathology review
Supraventricular arrhythmias: Pathology review
Traumatic brain injury: Pathology review
Ventricular arrhythmias: Pathology review
Congenital TORCH infections: Pathology review
Jaundice: Pathology review
Respiratory distress syndrome: Pathology review
Autosomal trisomies: Pathology review
Cystic fibrosis: Pathology review
Disorders of sex chromosomes: Pathology review
HIV and AIDS: Pathology review
Miscellaneous genetic disorders: Pathology review
Papulosquamous and inflammatory skin disorders: Pathology review
Anxiety disorders, phobias and stress-related disorders: Pathology Review
Developmental and learning disorders: Pathology review
Eating disorders: Pathology review
Mood disorders: Pathology review
Pharmacodynamics: Agonist, partial agonist and antagonist
Pharmacodynamics: Desensitization and tolerance
Pharmacodynamics: Drug-receptor interactions
Pharmacokinetics: Drug absorption and distribution
Pharmacokinetics: Drug elimination and clearance
Pharmacokinetics: Drug metabolism
Androgens and antiandrogens
Estrogens and antiestrogens
Miscellaneous cell wall synthesis inhibitors
Protein synthesis inhibitors: Tetracyclines
Cell wall synthesis inhibitors: Penicillins
Antihistamines for allergies
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
Antimetabolites: Sulfonamides and trimethoprim
Cell wall synthesis inhibitors: Cephalosporins
DNA synthesis inhibitors: Fluoroquinolones
DNA synthesis inhibitors: Metronidazole
Miscellaneous protein synthesis inhibitors
Protein synthesis inhibitors: Aminoglycosides
Bronchodilators: Beta 2-agonists and muscarinic antagonists
Bronchodilators: Leukotriene antagonists and methylxanthines
Pulmonary corticosteroids and mast cell inhibitors
Anticonvulsants and anxiolytics: Barbiturates
Anticonvulsants and anxiolytics: Benzodiazepines
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vs aspirin for pediatric patients p. 494
free radical injury and p. 211
hepatic necrosis from p. 248
for osteoarthritis p. 472
tension headaches p. 534
toxicity effects p. 494
toxicity treatment for p. 247
acetaminophen and p. 494
Acetaminophen, also known as paracetamol, is mainly used to treat pain and fever. These conditions are related to an increased production of pro-inflammatory chemicals called prostaglandins.
Now, acetaminophen works by decreasing the production of prostaglandins, thereby relieving pain, and reducing fever.
In order to understand how acetaminophen works, first we need to talk briefly about inflammation, which is the body’s response to a harmful stimulus, such as infection or injury.
So, during inflammation, your immune cells use an enzyme called phospholipase A2 to take membrane phospholipids and make a 20 carbon polyunsaturated fatty acid, called arachidonic acid.
Arachidonic acid is a substrate for an enzyme called cyclooxygenase or COX.
The enzyme cyclooxygenase exists in two different isoforms: COX-1 and COX-2.
COX-1 is a constitutive enzyme, meaning that it’s always active, while on the other hand, COX-2 is an inducible enzyme, meaning that it must be turned on to function. This is usually triggered by immune cells and vascular endothelial cells during inflammation.
Both enzymes produce prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and prostacyclin (PGI2), which cause vasodilation and attract different immune cells to the area.
They also act on neurons that detect pain, called nociceptors, and make them more sensitive to stimuli by lowering their threshold for activation.
Finally, they stimulate the hypothalamus to increase the body temperature, causing fever.
Prostaglandin E2 also has other effects like causing uterine contractions, decreasing the secretion of acid, and increasing the production of protective mucus in the stomach.
Alright, now let’s focus on acetaminophen. Acetaminophen is administered orally, rectally, or intravenously; and it works by reversibly inhibiting COX in the central nervous system, thereby decreasing production of the prostaglandins that cause fever and pain.
Acetaminophen (Paracetamol) is a medication used to relieve pain and reduce fever. It is usually taken orally, but can also be given intravenously. Acetaminophen is one of the most common medications used and is generally considered safe when taken as directed. However, acetaminophen can cause serious liver damage if too much is taken or if it is taken with certain other medications such as pexidartinib.
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