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Lordosis, kyphosis, and scoliosis
Osteomalacia and rickets
Paget disease of bone
Calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease (pseudogout)
Juvenile idiopathic arthritis
Inclusion body myopathy
Degenerative disc disease
Spinal disc herniation
Achilles tendon rupture
Anterior cruciate ligament injury
Iliotibial band syndrome
Patellar tendon rupture
Patellofemoral pain syndrome
Carpal tunnel syndrome
Thoracic outlet syndrome
Radial head subluxation (Nursemaid elbow)
Rotator cuff tear
Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome
Limited systemic sclerosis (CREST syndrome)
Mixed connective tissue disease
Systemic lupus erythematosus
Developmental dysplasia of the hip
Osgood-Schlatter disease (traction apophysitis)
Slipped capital femoral epiphysis
Back pain: Pathology review
Bone disorders: Pathology review
Bone tumors: Pathology review
Gout and pseudogout: Pathology review
Muscular dystrophies and mitochondrial myopathies: Pathology review
Myalgias and myositis: Pathology review
Neuromuscular junction disorders: Pathology review
Pediatric musculoskeletal disorders: Pathology review
Rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis: Pathology review
Scleroderma: Pathology review
Seronegative and septic arthritis: Pathology review
Sjogren syndrome: Pathology review
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE): Pathology review
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Baby Brielle - Our little one with achondroplasia
Congenital Bone Disorders: Osteogenesis Imperfecta, Achondroplasia & Osteopetrosis
In HBO’s adaptation of Game of Thrones, the character Tyrion Lannister is treated poorly by his father and siblings because he is born with dwarfism.
In a classic scene in the show, he says [“I’m guilty of being a dwarf! [father says: You’re not on trial for being a dwarf] Oh! Yes I am, I’ve been on trial for that my entire life].
Both Tyrion and his real-life counterpart—Peter Dinklage—have achondroplasia, an autosomal dominant genetic condition which is the most common cause of dwarfism and results from a heterozygous mutation in a gene called FGFR3, or fibroblast growth factor receptor 3, on chromosome 4, which codes for FGFR3 protein.
When FGFR3 protein binds fibroblast growth factors, or FGFs, it slows down the growth of certain bones.
The mutation causing achondroplasia is almost always the 380th amino acid, which is glycine, getting swapped out for arginine in the FGFR3 protein, and this swap causes the FGFR3 receptor to be constitutively active, which means constantly, active.
In other words, the mutation makes the receptor behave as though it’s binding an FGF even when it’s not, which sends a strong signal to inhibit bone growth.
More specifically, FGFR3 that is “always on” causes chondrocytes at the growth plate to proliferate slowly and become disorganized.
So, because of this it mostly affects endochondral bone formation, which is the process of bone forming right on previously-laid-down cartilage matrix, which causes the bone to elongate.
With the mutation though, this elongation is inhibited, which means long bones like the humerus and phalanges are affected.
Alright so the mutation affects endochondral bone formation, but bones that are products of intramembranous bone formation are way less affected.
This is where bone grows without an existing cartilage matrix.
This includes flat bones like the skull and ribs. Also an intramembranous process is appositional growth, which is the process of widening of long bones, so that happens pretty normally too.
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