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Iron deficiency anemia
Anemia of chronic disease
Hemolytic disease of the newborn
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency
Autoimmune hemolytic anemia
Pyruvate kinase deficiency
Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria
Sickle cell disease (NORD)
Anemia of chronic disease
Folate (Vitamin B9) deficiency
Vitamin B12 deficiency
Acute intermittent porphyria
Porphyria cutanea tarda
Vitamin K deficiency
Immune thrombocytopenic purpura
Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura
Von Willebrand disease
Disseminated intravascular coagulation
Antithrombin III deficiency
Factor V Leiden
Protein C deficiency
Protein S deficiency
Polycythemia vera (NORD)
Essential thrombocythemia (NORD)
Langerhans cell histiocytosis
Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance
Microcytic anemia: Pathology review
Non-hemolytic normocytic anemia: Pathology review
Intrinsic hemolytic normocytic anemia: Pathology review
Extrinsic hemolytic normocytic anemia: Pathology review
Macrocytic anemia: Pathology review
Heme synthesis disorders: Pathology review
Coagulation disorders: Pathology review
Platelet disorders: Pathology review
Mixed platelet and coagulation disorders: Pathology review
Thrombosis syndromes (hypercoagulability): Pathology review
Lymphomas: Pathology review
Leukemias: Pathology review
Plasma cell disorders: Pathology review
Myeloproliferative disorders: Pathology review
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0 / 4 complete
|Complete blood count|
|Prothrombin time (PT)||25 sec|
|Activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT)||50 sec|
|Bleeding time (BT)||11 minutes|
|Plasma fibrinogen||150 mg/dL (N = 200-400 mg/dL)|
|D-dimer||1200 ng/dL (N = <500 ng/mL)|
Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL), Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL), Hairy Cell Leukemia & Adult T-cell Leukemia
associations with p. 730
methotrexate for p. 446
oncogenes and p. 222
acute lymphoblastic leukemia p. 440
Jahnavi Narayanan, MBBS
Pauline Rowsome, BSc (Hons)
With acute leukemia, leuk- refers to white blood cells, and -emia refers to the blood, so in acute leukemia, there’s uncontrolled proliferation of partially developed white blood cells, also called blast cells, which build up in the blood over a short period of time.
Although leukemia means cancer white blood cells, it can also be used to refer to cancer of any of the blood cells, including red blood cells and platelets.
Acute leukemia can be broadly classified into acute myeloid leukemia, or AML; and acute lymphoblastic leukemia, ALL.
AML is more common in old age, where as ALL is more common in children. In both cases, accumulation of blast cells interferes with the development and function of healthy white blood cells, platelets, and red blood cells.
Now, every blood cell starts its life in the bone marrow as a hematopoietic stem cell. Hematopoietic stem cells are multipotent -- meaning that they can give rise to both myeloblasts, which are precursors of myeloid blood cells, and lymphoblasts, which are precursors of lymphoid blood cells.
These lymphoblasts can be pre-B cells, which develop into B lymphocytes; or pre-T cells, which develop into T lymphocytes.
If a hematopoietic stem cell develops into a myeloid cell, it’ll mature into an erythrocyte -- or a red blood cell, a thrombocyte -- or a platelet, or a leukocyte -- or a white blood cell, like a monocyte or granulocyte.
Granulocytes are cells with tiny granules inside of them -- they include neutrophils, basophils, and eosinophils.
If a hematopoietic stem cell develops into a lymphoid cell, on the other hand, it’ll mature into some other kind of leukocyte: a T cell, a B cell, or a natural killer cell, which are referred to as lymphocytes.
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