00:00 / 00:00
Non-urothelial bladder cancers
Transitional cell carcinoma
Hypospadias and epispadias
Posterior urethral valves
Lower urinary tract infection
Acute tubular necrosis
Renal cortical necrosis
Renal papillary necrosis
IgA nephropathy (NORD)
Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (NORD)
Minimal change disease
Medullary cystic kidney disease
Medullary sponge kidney
Multicystic dysplastic kidney
Polycystic kidney disease
Chronic kidney disease
Renal tubular acidosis
Nephroblastoma (Wilms tumor)
Renal cell carcinoma
Renal artery stenosis
Acid-base disturbances: Pathology review
Congenital renal disorders: Pathology review
Electrolyte disturbances: Pathology review
Kidney stones: Pathology review
Nephritic syndromes: Pathology review
Nephrotic syndromes: Pathology review
Renal and urinary tract masses: Pathology review
Renal failure: Pathology review
Renal tubular acidosis: Pathology review
Renal tubular defects: Pathology review
Urinary incontinence: Pathology review
Urinary tract infections: Pathology review
0 / 10 complete
0 / 3 complete
labs/findings p. 731
renal papillary necrosis and p. 621
WBC casts in p. 614
pyelonephritis and p. 621
pyelonephritis p. 621
xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis p. 621
kidney stones p. 624
urinary tract infections p. 179
With acute pyelonephritis, pyelo- means pelvis, and -neph- refers to the kidney, so in this case it’s the renal pelvis, which is the funnel-like structure of the kidney that drains urine into the ureter, and -itis means inflammation. So acute pyelonephritis describes an inflamed kidney that develops relatively quickly, usually as a result of a bacterial infection.
Now a urinary tract infection, or UTI, is any infection of the urinary tract, which includes the upper portion of the tract—the kidneys and the ureters, and the lower portion of the tract—the bladder and urethra. So acute pyelonephritis is a type of upper urinary tract infection.
Acute pyelonephritis is most often caused by ascending infection, meaning bacteria start by colonizing the urethra and bladder, which would be a lower urinary tract infections, and make their way up the ureters and kidney, therefore upper UTI shares a lot of the same risk factors as lower UTI, things like female sex, sexual intercourse, indwelling catheters, diabetes mellitus, and urinary tract obstruction.
One major factor that increases the risk of an upper UTI from a lower UTI spreading upward is vesicoureteral reflux, or VUR, which is where urine is allowed to move backward up the urinary tract, which can happen if the vesicoureteral orifice fails.
The vesicoureteral orifice is the one-way valve that allows urine to flow from each ureter into the bladder, but not in the reverse direction.
Acute pyelonephritis is a sudden, severe infection of the kidney. The infection may be caused by bacteria that travel up from the bladder or bacteria circulating in the blood (bacteremia). Symptoms of acute pyelonephritis can include fever, chills, nausea, vomiting, and pain in the lower back and sides. If left untreated, acute pyelonephritis can lead to serious complications like sepsis (a potentially life-threatening condition caused by infection).
Latest on COVID-19
Nurse Practitioner (NP)
Physician Assistant (PA)
Create custom content
Raise the Line Podcast
Copyright © 2024 Elsevier, its licensors, and contributors. All rights are reserved, including those for text and data mining, AI training, and similar technologies.
Cookies are used by this site.
Terms and Conditions
USMLE® is a joint program of the Federation of State Medical Boards (FSMB) and the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME). COMLEX-USA® is a registered trademark of The National Board of Osteopathic Medical Examiners, Inc. NCLEX-RN® is a registered trademark of the National Council of State Boards of Nursing, Inc. Test names and other trademarks are the property of the respective trademark holders. None of the trademark holders are endorsed by nor affiliated with Osmosis or this website.