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Viral structure and functions
Hepatitis B and Hepatitis D virus
Epstein-Barr virus (Infectious mononucleosis)
Herpes simplex virus
Human herpesvirus 6 (Roseola)
Human herpesvirus 8 (Kaposi sarcoma)
Varicella zoster virus
BK virus (Hemorrhagic cystitis)
JC virus (Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy)
Poxvirus (Smallpox and Molluscum contagiosum)
Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus
Hepatitis C virus
West Nile virus
Yellow fever virus
Human parainfluenza viruses
Respiratory syncytial virus
Hepatitis A and Hepatitis E virus
Human T-lymphotropic virus
Eastern and Western equine encephalitis virus
Prions (Spongiform encephalopathy)
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characteristics of p. 161
conjunctivitis p. 551
pneumonia p. NaN
viral envelope p. 160
adenoviridae p. 161
adenovirus p. 161
Adenoviruses are a group of viruses that cause respiratory, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary infections.
There are about 60 serotypes of the virus, divided into 7 subgroups, from A to G.
Common respiratory infections caused by adenoviruses include a sore throat, the common cold and pneumonia, whereas diarrhea is the most common gastrointestinal ailment.
Adenoviruses can also cause cystitis, which is the inflammation of the bladder, as well as eye conditions like conjunctivitis.
Adenoviruses are double-stranded linear DNA viruses surrounded by an icosahedral capsid, which is a spherical protein shell made up of 20 equilateral triangular faces.
And they’re “naked” because the capsid isn’t covered by a lipid membrane.
Their capsid is unique among viruses because it has fiber-like projections from each of the 12 vertices of the shell.
Adenovirus is primarily transmitted by respiratory droplets when someone coughs or sneezes and by the fecal-oral route.
In other words, you catch it by ingesting the stool or vomit particles of someone who is sick. Yuck.
This can happen if infected stool ends up in the water supply or on agricultural fields, if flies land on it, and transfers stool particles to other places, or by touching contaminated surfaces.
You can summarize it as the four Fs: fluids, fields, flies, and fingers. As a result, adenovirus can end up in food and drinking water.
Two less common modes of transmission are from mother to newborn via the cervical fluid in the birth canal, and following an organ transplant from a donor who has an adenovirus infection.
After entering the body, the virus heads for epithelial cells, like those that make up the respiratory, GI, or urinary mucosa, where it uses its fiber projections to bind to the coxsackie-adenovirus receptor on cell membranes. This allows it to get inside the cells.
Adenovirus is a type of DNA virus that can cause respiratory infections, including the common cold, and also conjunctivitis or "pink eye." They can also cause more serious diseases such as pneumonia, bronchitis, and even meningitis, especially in immunocompromised individuals.
Adenovirus is spread through contact with respiratory secretions, such as saliva or mucus, from an infected person. They can also be spread through the fecal-oral route, and hand hygiene with water and soap or using sanitizers is the best way to prevent infection with adenovirus.
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