Adrenergic antagonists are a type of drug that blocks the action of adrenaline in the body. Adrenaline is a hormone that is released in response to stress or excitement, and it causes the heart rate to speed up and the blood vessels to narrow.
Beta-blockers are a type of adrenergic antagonist that blocks the sympathetic activation of Beta-adrenergic receptors. Beta-blockers work by blocking the action of adrenaline, which is responsible for the body's fight-or-flight response. This makes them ideal for treating conditions where the body's natural response to stress is harmful, such as high blood pressure and heart arrhythmia.
- "Katzung & Trevor's Pharmacology Examination and Board Review,12th Edition" McGraw-Hill Education / Medical (2018)
- "Rang and Dale's Pharmacology" Elsevier (2019)
- "Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 13th Edition" McGraw-Hill Education / Medical (2017)
- "Chronotropic incompetence, beta-blockers, and functional capacity in advanced congestive heart failure: Time to pace?" European Journal of Heart Failure (2008)
- "Beta-blockers for hypertension" Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (2017)
- "Blood pressure lowering efficacy of beta-1 selective beta blockers for primary hypertension" Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (2016)
- "Treatment of Angina: Where Are We?" Cardiology (2018)
- "Bisoprolol compared with carvedilol and metoprolol succinate in the treatment of patients with chronic heart failure" Clinical Research in Cardiology (2017)
- "A Review of Nebivolol Pharmacology and Clinical Evidence" Drugs (2015)
- "Management of arrhythmia in sepsis and septic shock" Anaesthesiol Intensive Ther (2017)