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Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
von Hippel-Lindau disease
Acoustic neuroma (schwannoma)
Adult brain tumors
Pediatric brain tumors
Transient ischemic attack
Cavernous sinus thrombosis
Spinocerebellar ataxia (NORD)
Tethered spinal cord syndrome
Lewy body dementia
Normal pressure hydrocephalus
Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis
Central pontine myelinolysis
JC virus (Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy)
Idiopathic intracranial hypertension
Opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome (NORD)
Restless legs syndrome
Early infantile epileptic encephalopathy (NORD)
Cauda equina syndrome
Treponema pallidum (Syphilis)
Vitamin B12 deficiency
Concussion and traumatic brain injury
Spinal muscular atrophy
Carpal tunnel syndrome
Thoracic outlet syndrome
Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome
Adult brain tumors: Pathology review
Central nervous system infections: Pathology review
Cerebral vascular disease: Pathology review
Congenital neurological disorders: Pathology review
Dementia: Pathology review
Demyelinating disorders: Pathology review
Headaches: Pathology review
Movement disorders: Pathology review
Neurocutaneous disorders: Pathology review
Neuromuscular junction disorders: Pathology review
Pediatric brain tumors: Pathology review
Seizures: Pathology review
Spinal cord disorders: Pathology review
Traumatic brain injury: Pathology review
In the neurology ward, a 64-year old female, named Angela, came in complaining of morning headaches along with nausea and vomiting for the past few weeks. Her husband says that her personality has changed over the last few weeks and she seems more aggressive. Brain MRI revealed a mass in the frontal lobe.Tissue biopsy shows a pseudo-palisading pattern with necrosis in the middle and viable cells lining up in the periphery.
Now, next to Angela, there’s Jerry, a 59-year old male who’s also having morning headaches for the past few months. A brain MRI is ordered and reveals a mass on the brain surface, just under the dura mater. Tissue biopsy shows psammoma bodies.
Finally, there’s a 40-year old male, named Dan, who complains of ringing in the ears and hearing loss on one side. A brain MRI is done, and showed a mass on the cerebellopontine angle. Tissue biopsy shows a mass with biphasic appearance with alternating hypercellular and hypocellular regions. Tumor cells stain positively for S100.
Okay, Angela, Jerry, and Dan all had brain tumor. Brain tumors occur when there’s uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells within the brain. They are broadly classified into primary tumors originating from cells within the nervous system and metastatic tumors originating from cells outside the nervous system.
Now, brain tumors can occur in both children and adults. In this video, let’s focus on adult brain tumors. In adults, metastatic tumors are much more common than primary tumors, in fact, they account for more than half of the cases. In order of decreasing frequency, they metastasize from the lung, breast, melanoma from the skin, kidneys, and colon. Now, the most common primary brain tumor in adults is glioblastoma multiforme, which is a type of astrocytomas. Meningiomas and pituitary adenomas are next on the list. Less common brain tumors include oligodendrogliomas, hemangioblastomas, and Schwannomas. immunocompromised people, like organ transplant recipients or individuals with AIDS, are at high risk of primary central nervous system lymphoma caused by the Epstein-Barr virus.
Adult brain tumors are tumors that occur in adults. The most common type of adult brain tumor is glioma, which arises from the glial cells that support the nerve cells in the brain. Other types of adult brain tumors include meningiomas (tumors that arise from the meninges, which are the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord), schwannomas (tumors that arise from Schwann cells, which support the nerve fibers), and astrocytomas (tumors that arise from star-shaped cells called astrocytes).
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