Alagille syndrome (NORD)


00:00 / 00:00



Alagille syndrome (NORD)


Population genetics

Mendelian genetics and punnett squares

Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium

Inheritance patterns

Independent assortment of genes and linkage

Evolution and natural selection

Genetic disorders

Down syndrome (Trisomy 21)

Edwards syndrome (Trisomy 18)

Patau syndrome (Trisomy 13)

Fragile X syndrome

Huntington disease

Myotonic dystrophy

Friedreich ataxia

Turner syndrome

Klinefelter syndrome

Prader-Willi syndrome

Angelman syndrome

Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome

Cri du chat syndrome

Williams syndrome

Alagille syndrome (NORD)


Polycystic kidney disease

Familial adenomatous polyposis

Familial hypercholesterolemia

Hereditary spherocytosis

Huntington disease

Li-Fraumeni syndrome

Marfan syndrome

Multiple endocrine neoplasia

Myotonic dystrophy


Treacher Collins syndrome

Tuberous sclerosis

von Hippel-Lindau disease


Polycystic kidney disease

Cystic fibrosis

Friedreich ataxia

Gaucher disease (NORD)

Glycogen storage disease type I

Glycogen storage disease type II (NORD)

Glycogen storage disease type III

Glycogen storage disease type IV

Glycogen storage disease type V


Mucopolysaccharide storage disease type 1 (Hurler syndrome) (NORD)

Krabbe disease


Niemann-Pick disease types A and B (NORD)

Niemann-Pick disease type C

Primary ciliary dyskinesia

Phenylketonuria (NORD)

Sickle cell disease (NORD)

Tay-Sachs disease (NORD)



Wilson disease

Fragile X syndrome

Alport syndrome

X-linked agammaglobulinemia

Fabry disease (NORD)

Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency


Mucopolysaccharide storage disease type 2 (Hunter syndrome) (NORD)

Lesch-Nyhan syndrome

Muscular dystrophy

Ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency

Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome

Mitochondrial myopathy

Autosomal trisomies: Pathology review

Muscular dystrophies and mitochondrial myopathies: Pathology review

Miscellaneous genetic disorders: Pathology review

High Yield Notes

7 pages


Content Reviewers

Yifan Xiao, MD


Alex Aranda

Salma Ladhani, MD

Zachary Kevorkian, MSMI

Alagille syndrome, or ALGS, is a genetic disorder that can affect multiple organs in the body and cause a variety of abnormalities.

Alagille syndrome typically affects the liver but it can also cause problems in the heart, kidney, eyes, and bones.

One of the main liver features of Alagille syndrome is the disruption of bile flow from the liver to the gallbladder.

Affected individuals have a reduced number of bile ducts in the liver.

As a result, there is a decrease in bile flow, also known as cholestasis.

The symptoms and signs of cholestasis include jaundice, or the yellowing of skin and eyes, severe itching, pale colored stools, and dark urine.

Some patients may also have an enlarged spleen or liver.

Because many necessary vitamins and nutrients need bile to be properly absorbed, people with Alagille syndrome may also experience select vitamin deficiencies, or poor weight gain and growth.

Deficiencies in specific vitamins may result in vision problems from a lack of Vitamin A, bone weakness from a lack of vitamin D, developmental delays from a lack of Vitamin E, and blood clotting problems from a lack of Vitamin K.

The heart can also be impacted by Alagille syndrome.

The most common finding in ALGS patients is peripheral pulmonary arterial stenosis.

This means that the blood vessels carrying blood to the lungs are narrowed.

The stenosis typically manifests as a heart murmur, or an extra sound in the heartbeat.

Symptoms are based on the degree of narrowing of the blood vessel and some people may have no symptoms while others may have dizziness, shortness of breath, increased sweating, chest pains, and cyanosis, or bluish colored skin.


Alagille syndrome (NORD) is a rare, autosomal dominant disorder that affects the liver, heart, and other parts of the body. The most common symptom of Alagille syndrome is jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes) in infancy. Other symptoms may include malformed bones, kidney problems, and irregular developmental milestones. There is no cure for Alagille syndrome, but many affected individuals can lead normal, productive lives with proper care.


Copyright © 2023 Elsevier, except certain content provided by third parties

Cookies are used by this site.

USMLE® is a joint program of the Federation of State Medical Boards (FSMB) and the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME). COMLEX-USA® is a registered trademark of The National Board of Osteopathic Medical Examiners, Inc. NCLEX-RN® is a registered trademark of the National Council of State Boards of Nursing, Inc. Test names and other trademarks are the property of the respective trademark holders. None of the trademark holders are endorsed by nor affiliated with Osmosis or this website.