00:00 / 00:00
Generalized anxiety disorder
Social anxiety disorder
Major depressive disorder
Major depressive disorder with seasonal pattern
Premenstrual dysphoric disorder
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome
Lewy body dementia
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
Autism spectrum disorder
Disruptive, impulse control, and conduct disorders
Fetal alcohol syndrome
Body dysmorphic disorder
Body focused repetitive disorders
Cluster A personality disorders
Cluster B personality disorders
Cluster C personality disorders
Female sexual interest and arousal disorder
Genito-pelvic pain and penetration disorder
Male hypoactive sexual desire disorder
Somatic symptom disorder
Alcohol use disorder
Physical and sexual abuse
Post-traumatic stress disorder
Amnesia, dissociative disorders and delirium: Pathology review
Anxiety disorders, phobias and stress-related disorders: Pathology Review
Childhood and early-onset psychological disorders: Pathology review
Dementia: Pathology review
Developmental and learning disorders: Pathology review
Drug misuse, intoxication and withdrawal: Alcohol: Pathology review
Drug misuse, intoxication and withdrawal: Hallucinogens: Pathology review
Drug misuse, intoxication and withdrawal: Other depressants: Pathology review
Drug misuse, intoxication and withdrawal: Stimulants: Pathology review
Eating disorders: Pathology review
Malingering, factitious disorders and somatoform disorders: Pathology review
Mood disorders: Pathology review
Personality disorders: Pathology review
Psychiatric emergencies: Pathology review
Psychological sleep disorders: Pathology review
Schizophrenia spectrum disorders: Pathology review
Trauma- and stress-related disorders: Pathology review
0 / 12 complete
0 / 9 complete
Alcohol Abuse Assessment
Alcohol Abuse Interventions
alcoholism p. 591, 726
anemia p. 426
in anemia taxonomy p. 423
cardiomyopathy p. 315
cataracts and p. 552
cirrhosis and p. 396
common organisms affecting p. 176
esophageal cancer p. 385
ethanol metabolism and p. 70
folate deficiency p. 426
gastritis in p. 386
hepatitis p. 374
hypertension and p. 304
ketone bodies in p. 88
Klebsiella in p. 143
Korsakoff syndrome p. 577
liver serum markers in p. 397
lung abscesses and p. 706
magnesium levels in p. 334
Mallory-Weiss syndrome in p. 384
osteonecrosis in p. 468
osteoporosis and p. 467
pancreatitis p. 248, 404
porphyria p. 430
sideroblastic anemia p. 425
subdural hematomas p. 530
treatment p. 726
vitamin B1 deficiency p. 64
vitamin BNaN deficiency p. 66
wet beriberi p. 722
readmissions with p. 277
alcoholics p. 176
alcoholism p. 176
alcoholism p. 726
alcoholism treatment p. 591
alcoholism p. 591
Alcohol is one of the most widely used psychoactive substances in the world, and has been a part of different cultures for hundreds of years.
Drinking alcohol can have serious harmful consequences, it’s been linked to various cancers, gastrointestinal diseases, and metabolic problems.
Over time, regular use of alcohol can lead to alcohol dependence and bouts of withdrawal, and this can take a serious physical and emotional toll on a person’s life.
Alcoholic drinks contain the chemical ethanol, which is a tiny molecule that reduces the activity of various inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmitter pathways in the brain.
Inhibitory neurotransmitters make neurons in the central nervous system less likely to fire an action potential, and the brain’s major inhibitory neurotransmitter—gamma-aminobutyric acid or GABA—acts as an “off” switch and restricts brain activity.
Ethanol is a GABA agonist, so when it binds to GABA receptors it makes that inhibitory signal even stronger.
Ethanol also activates opioid receptors and induces the release of endogenous morphine—known as endorphins.
The opioids then bind to receptors on dopaminergic neurons in the nucleus accumbens, which trigger the release of dopamine and serotonin in that part of the brain.
Ethanol also acts as a glutamate antagonist.
In other words, ethanol blocks glutamate, which is an excitatory neurotransmitter, from binding to glutamate receptors, making it less likely that those neurons will fire.
The combined effect that ethanol has on these neurotransmitters varies by the location in the brain.
For example, in the nucleus accumbens and the amygdala, which are the reward centers of the brain, ethanol produces pleasant or rewarding feelings like euphoria.
This is important because if a person believes that drinking leads to euphoria, they are more likely to drink again.
In the cerebral cortex, the thought-processing center of the brain, ethanol slows everything down, making it difficult to think and speak clearly.
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