Allergic rhinitis


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Allergic rhinitis

Respiratory system

Upper respiratory tract disorders

Choanal atresia


Allergic rhinitis

Nasal polyps

Upper respiratory tract infection



Retropharyngeal and peritonsillar abscesses

Bacterial epiglottitis

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma

Lower respiratory tract disorders

Tracheoesophageal fistula

Congenital pulmonary airway malformation

Pulmonary hypoplasia

Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome

Transient tachypnea of the newborn

Meconium aspiration syndrome

Apnea of prematurity

Sudden infant death syndrome

Acute respiratory distress syndrome

Pulmonary changes at high altitude and altitude sickness

Decompression sickness

Cyanide poisoning



Chronic bronchitis


Cystic fibrosis


Alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency

Restrictive lung diseases


Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

Hypersensitivity pneumonitis



Bacterial tracheitis

Lung cancer

Pancoast tumor

Superior vena cava syndrome

Pleura and pleural space disorders


Pleural effusion


Pulmonary vascular disorders

Pulmonary embolism

Pulmonary edema

Pulmonary hypertension

Apnea and hypoventilation

Sleep apnea

Apnea of prematurity

Respiratory system pathology review

Respiratory distress syndrome: Pathology review

Cystic fibrosis: Pathology review

Pneumonia: Pathology review

Tuberculosis: Pathology review

Deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism: Pathology review

Pleural effusion, pneumothorax, hemothorax and atelectasis: Pathology review

Obstructive lung diseases: Pathology review

Restrictive lung diseases: Pathology review

Apnea, hypoventilation and pulmonary hypertension: Pathology review

Lung cancer and mesothelioma: Pathology review


Allergic rhinitis


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Allergic rhinitis

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Memory Anchors and Partner Content

External References

First Aid









phenylephrine for p. 243

type I hypersensitivity p. 110



Tanner Marshall, MS

Vincent Waldman, PhD

“Rhin” refers to the nose and “itis” refers to inflammation, so rhinitis is nasal inflammation.

Allergic rhinitis is also called hay fever, and it’s typically caused by allergens like hay, as well as pollen, dust, animal hair, or mold spores.

When the main trigger is pollinating plants, allergic rhinitis will flare up at specific times of the year.

Allergic rhinitis is a type 1 hypersensitivity reaction, which is a type of allergic reaction that starts with exposure to an environmental allergen.

So - let’s say that a bit of pollen enters the nose. It can get picked up by a dendritic cell which is a type of immune cell that gobbles up foreign particles and presents it to a nearby lymphocyte called a T cell.

If the T cell gets activated, it kicks into action, producing cytokines which helps to get other immune cells involved.

The exact type of T cell determines the type of immune response, and in allergic rhinitis there’s a bit of a T cell imbalance.

There are too many T cells that, when activated, stimulate B cells, another group of lymphocytes, to produce IgE antibodies.

Those IgE antibodies get released into the bloodstream and bind to mast cells, which are immune cells in the tissue that carry within themselves a load histamine.

Once bound by IgE the mast cells are “primed”, meaning if pollen enters the body again in the future, those mast cells degranulate and release their histamine into the local tissue.


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  2. "Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, Twentieth Edition (Vol.1 & Vol.2)" McGraw-Hill Education / Medical (2018)
  3. "Pathophysiology of Disease: An Introduction to Clinical Medicine 8E" McGraw-Hill Education / Medical (2018)
  4. "Pathophysiology of Disease: An Introduction to Clinical Medicine 8E" McGraw-Hill Education / Medical (2018)
  5. "CURRENT Medical Diagnosis and Treatment 2020" McGraw-Hill Education / Medical (2019)
  6. "Allergic Rhinitis" New England Journal of Medicine (2015)
  7. "Overview of 'Allergy and allergic diseases: with a view to the future'" British Medical Bulletin (2000)

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