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Anatomy of the abdominal viscera: Kidneys, ureters and suprarenal glands
Renal system anatomy and physiology
Renal failure: Pathology review
Anatomy clinical correlates: Anterior and posterior abdominal wall
Anatomy clinical correlates: Inguinal region
Anatomy clinical correlates: Peritoneum and diaphragm
Anatomy clinical correlates: Viscera of the gastrointestinal tract
Anatomy clinical correlates: Other abdominal organs
Appendicitis: Pathology review
Complications during pregnancy: Pathology review
Diverticular disease: Pathology review
Gallbladder disorders: Pathology review
GERD, peptic ulcers, gastritis, and stomach cancer: Pathology review
Inflammatory bowel disease: Pathology review
Mood disorders: Pathology review
Pancreatitis: Pathology review
Anatomy clinical correlates: Female pelvis and perineum
Cervical cancer: Pathology review
Uterine disorders: Pathology review
Extrinsic hemolytic normocytic anemia: Pathology review
Intrinsic hemolytic normocytic anemia: Pathology review
Macrocytic anemia: Pathology review
Microcytic anemia: Pathology review
Non-hemolytic normocytic anemia: Pathology review
Anatomy clinical correlates: Heart
Anatomy clinical correlates: Mediastinum
Anatomy clinical correlates: Pleura and lungs
Anatomy clinical correlates: Thoracic wall
Aortic dissections and aneurysms: Pathology review
Coronary artery disease: Pathology review
Deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism: Pathology review
Pleural effusion, pneumothorax, hemothorax and atelectasis: Pathology review
ECG cardiac infarction and ischemia
Pigmentation skin disorders: Pathology review
Skin cancer: Pathology review
Papulosquamous and inflammatory skin disorders: Pathology review
Anatomy of the abdominal viscera: Esophagus and stomach
Anatomy of the abdominal viscera: Large intestine
Anatomy of the abdominal viscera: Small intestine
Anatomy of the gastrointestinal organs of the pelvis and perineum
Gastrointestinal system anatomy and physiology
Enteric nervous system
Colorectal polyps and cancer: Pathology review
Laxatives and cathartics
Lung cancer and mesothelioma: Pathology review
Nasal, oral and pharyngeal diseases: Pathology review
Obstructive lung diseases: Pathology review
Pneumonia: Pathology review
Tuberculosis: Pathology review
Amnesia, dissociative disorders and delirium: Pathology review
Cerebral vascular disease: Pathology review
Dementia: Pathology review
Electrolyte disturbances: Pathology review
Hypothyroidism: Pathology review
Bile secretion and enterohepatic circulation
Malabsorption syndromes: Pathology review
Bacillus cereus (Food poisoning)
Clostridium difficile (Pseudomembranous colitis)
Vibrio cholerae (Cholera)
Anatomy clinical correlates: Facial (CN VII) and vestibulocochlear (CN VIII) nerves
Cardiomyopathies: Pathology review
Heart blocks: Pathology review
Supraventricular arrhythmias: Pathology review
Valvular heart disease: Pathology review
Ventricular arrhythmias: Pathology review
Vertigo: Pathology review
ECG cardiac hypertrophy and enlargement
ECG normal sinus rhythm
ECG QRS transition
ECG rate and rhythm
Kidney stones: Pathology review
Sexually transmitted infections: Vaginitis and cervicitis: Pathology review
Sexually transmitted infections: Warts and ulcers: Pathology review
Urinary tract infections: Pathology review
Central nervous system infections: Pathology review
Shock: Pathology review
Anatomy clinical correlates: Anterior blood supply to the brain
Anatomy clinical correlates: Temporal regions, oral cavity and nose
Headaches: Pathology review
Traumatic brain injury: Pathology review
Vasculitis: Pathology review
Anatomy clinical correlates: Arm, elbow and forearm
Anatomy clinical correlates: Axilla
Anatomy clinical correlates: Bones, fascia and muscles of the neck
Anatomy clinical correlates: Bones, joints and muscles of the back
Anatomy clinical correlates: Clavicle and shoulder
Anatomy clinical correlates: Foot
Anatomy clinical correlates: Hip, gluteal region and thigh
Anatomy clinical correlates: Knee
Anatomy clinical correlates: Leg and ankle
Anatomy clinical correlates: Median, ulnar and radial nerves
Anatomy clinical correlates: Wrist and hand
Seronegative and septic arthritis: Pathology review
Apnea, hypoventilation and pulmonary hypertension: Pathology review
Heart failure: Pathology review
Nephrotic syndromes: Pathology review
Anatomy clinical correlates: Vertebral canal
Back pain: Pathology review
Anatomy clinical correlates: Male pelvis and perineum
Penile conditions: Pathology review
Prostate disorders and cancer: Pathology review
Testicular and scrotal conditions: Pathology review
Testicular tumors: Pathology review
Anatomy clinical correlates: Eye
Eye conditions: Inflammation, infections and trauma: Pathology review
Eye conditions: Refractive errors, lens disorders and glaucoma: Pathology review
Eye conditions: Retinal disorders: Pathology review
Bronchodilators: Beta 2-agonists and muscarinic antagonists
Bronchodilators: Leukotriene antagonists and methylxanthines
Pulmonary corticosteroids and mast cell inhibitors
Anatomy clinical correlates: Ear
Vaginal and vulvar disorders: Pathology review
Anxiety disorders, phobias and stress-related disorders: Pathology Review
Atherosclerosis and arteriosclerosis: Pathology review
Bone disorders: Pathology review
Diabetes mellitus: Pathology review
Drug misuse, intoxication and withdrawal: Alcohol: Pathology review
Drug misuse, intoxication and withdrawal: Hallucinogens: Pathology review
Drug misuse, intoxication and withdrawal: Other depressants: Pathology review
Drug misuse, intoxication and withdrawal: Stimulants: Pathology review
Dyslipidemias: Pathology review
Hypertension: Pathology review
Movement disorders: Pathology review
Peripheral artery disease: Pathology review
Psychological sleep disorders: Pathology review
Rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis: Pathology review
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Dissociative Identity Disorder
78 year old Joanne is brought in by her son, who is worried because Joanne seems to forget things all the time.
You start by introducing yourself, and then explain to Joanne the reason she’s in the hospital.
You then ask her a few things about herself.
She looks confused and tells you that she used to be a Broadway singer before retiring and she has travelled all around Europe.
Her son tells you she used to work as a sales woman and she’s never been to Europe in her entire life.
A few minutes later, Joanne asks her son where they are and who you are.
On physical examination, you notice a strong alcoholic odor, so her son reluctantly tells you that Joanne has a history of chronic alcohol abuse.
Next to her, a 66 year old man is also brought to the hospital, after being found by the police wandering in the streets, with a battered suitcase.
He doesn’t seem to know his name, location, or where he was going, and stares blankly when you ask him anything.
The only thing he is able to tell you is that he is going on a business trip.
When you contact his relatives, they tell you that his name is Matthew, and that he was recently fired from his job.
Physical examination is unremarkable.
Based on the initial presentation, both Joanne and Matthew seem to have some form of amnesia, dissociative disorder, or delirium.
Okay, starting with amnesia, this can be categorized into two types.
The first type is anterograde amnesia, which refers to an inability to form new memories, often forgetting what happened hour to hour.
The second and probably most high yield type of amnesia is retrograde amnesia, and it refers to an inability to recall old memories.
As a result, they may completely forget important people or moments in their life, which can cause anxiety for the individual experiencing retrograde amnesia, as well as their friends and family.
Both anterograde and retrograde amnesia can be caused by acute and chronic conditions.
Acute causes include traumatic brain injury or infections that may cause brain inflammation, such as herpes simplex.
On the other hand, chronic causes include brain tumors and neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer disease or other forms of dementia.
For your exams, what’s extremely high yield to remember is that amnesia can also result from vitamin B1 or thiamine deficiency.
Pathologically, amnesia is defined as a loss of memory despite otherwise normal cognitive function. It can be due to damage to the brain like in stroke, or degenerative diseases that affect the brain. Dissociative disorders are a group of conditions that involve disruptions in consciousness, identity, and/or memory. Delirium is a mental state characterized by alteration of attention, consciousness, and cognition.
Amnesia can be divided into three subtypes: anterograde amnesia, retrograde amnesia, and transient global amnesia. Anterograde amnesia is the inability to form new memories following the onset of amnesia. Retrograde amnesia is the inability to recall memories that were formed before the onset of amnesia. Transient global amnesia is a brief episode of complete or nearly complete memory loss.
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