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Generalized anxiety disorder
Social anxiety disorder
Major depressive disorder
Major depressive disorder with seasonal pattern
Premenstrual dysphoric disorder
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome
Lewy body dementia
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
Autism spectrum disorder
Disruptive, impulse control, and conduct disorders
Fetal alcohol syndrome
Body dysmorphic disorder
Body focused repetitive disorders
Cluster A personality disorders
Cluster B personality disorders
Cluster C personality disorders
Female sexual interest and arousal disorder
Genito-pelvic pain and penetration disorder
Male hypoactive sexual desire disorder
Somatic symptom disorder
Alcohol use disorder
Physical and sexual abuse
Post-traumatic stress disorder
Amnesia, dissociative disorders and delirium: Pathology review
Anxiety disorders, phobias and stress-related disorders: Pathology Review
Childhood and early-onset psychological disorders: Pathology review
Dementia: Pathology review
Developmental and learning disorders: Pathology review
Drug misuse, intoxication and withdrawal: Alcohol: Pathology review
Drug misuse, intoxication and withdrawal: Hallucinogens: Pathology review
Drug misuse, intoxication and withdrawal: Other depressants: Pathology review
Drug misuse, intoxication and withdrawal: Stimulants: Pathology review
Eating disorders: Pathology review
Malingering, factitious disorders and somatoform disorders: Pathology review
Mood disorders: Pathology review
Personality disorders: Pathology review
Psychiatric emergencies: Pathology review
Psychological sleep disorders: Pathology review
Schizophrenia spectrum disorders: Pathology review
Trauma- and stress-related disorders: Pathology review
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Dissociative Identity Disorder
78 year old Joanne is brought in by her son, who is worried because Joanne seems to forget things all the time.
You start by introducing yourself, and then explain to Joanne the reason she’s in the hospital.
You then ask her a few things about herself.
She looks confused and tells you that she used to be a Broadway singer before retiring and she has travelled all around Europe.
Her son tells you she used to work as a sales woman and she’s never been to Europe in her entire life.
A few minutes later, Joanne asks her son where they are and who you are.
On physical examination, you notice a strong alcoholic odor, so her son reluctantly tells you that Joanne has a history of chronic alcohol abuse.
Next to her, a 66 year old man is also brought to the hospital, after being found by the police wandering in the streets, with a battered suitcase.
He doesn’t seem to know his name, location, or where he was going, and stares blankly when you ask him anything.
The only thing he is able to tell you is that he is going on a business trip.
When you contact his relatives, they tell you that his name is Matthew, and that he was recently fired from his job.
Physical examination is unremarkable.
Based on the initial presentation, both Joanne and Matthew seem to have some form of amnesia, dissociative disorder, or delirium.
Okay, starting with amnesia, this can be categorized into two types.
The first type is anterograde amnesia, which refers to an inability to form new memories, often forgetting what happened hour to hour.
The second and probably most high yield type of amnesia is retrograde amnesia, and it refers to an inability to recall old memories.
As a result, they may completely forget important people or moments in their life, which can cause anxiety for the individual experiencing retrograde amnesia, as well as their friends and family.
Both anterograde and retrograde amnesia can be caused by acute and chronic conditions.
Acute causes include traumatic brain injury or infections that may cause brain inflammation, such as herpes simplex.
On the other hand, chronic causes include brain tumors and neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer disease or other forms of dementia.
For your exams, what’s extremely high yield to remember is that amnesia can also result from vitamin B1 or thiamine deficiency.
Pathologically, amnesia is defined as a loss of memory despite otherwise normal cognitive function. It can be due to damage to the brain like in stroke, or degenerative diseases that affect the brain. Dissociative disorders are a group of conditions that involve disruptions in consciousness, identity, and/or memory. Delirium is a mental state characterized by alteration of attention, consciousness, and cognition.
Amnesia can be divided into three subtypes: anterograde amnesia, retrograde amnesia, and transient global amnesia. Anterograde amnesia is the inability to form new memories following the onset of amnesia. Retrograde amnesia is the inability to recall memories that were formed before the onset of amnesia. Transient global amnesia is a brief episode of complete or nearly complete memory loss.
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