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Major depressive disorder
Seasonal affective disorder
Premenstrual dysphoric disorder
Generalized anxiety disorder
Social anxiety disorder
Body focused repetitive disorders
Body dysmorphic disorder
Post-traumatic stress disorder
Physical and sexual abuse
Cluster A personality disorders
Cluster B personality disorders
Cluster C personality disorders
Somatic symptom disorder
Alcohol use disorder
Male hypoactive sexual desire disorder
Female sexual interest and arousal disorder
Genito-pelvic pain and penetration disorder
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
Disruptive, impulse control, and conduct disorders
Fetal alcohol syndrome
Autism spectrum disorder
Shaken baby syndrome
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome
Mood disorders: Pathology review
Amnesia, dissociative disorders and delirium: Pathology review
Personality disorders: Pathology review
Eating disorders: Pathology review
Psychological sleep disorders: Pathology review
Psychiatric emergencies: Pathology review
Drug misuse, intoxication and withdrawal: Hallucinogens: Pathology review
Malingering, factitious disorders and somatoform disorders: Pathology review
Anxiety disorders, phobias and stress-related disorders: Pathology Review
Trauma- and stress-related disorders: Pathology review
Schizophrenia spectrum disorders: Pathology review
Drug misuse, intoxication and withdrawal: Stimulants: Pathology review
Drug misuse, intoxication and withdrawal: Alcohol: Pathology review
Developmental and learning disorders: Pathology review
Childhood and early-onset psychological disorders: Pathology review
0 / 7 complete
brain lesions p. 528
classification of p. 581
clinical drug-induced p. 566
electroconvulsive therapy p. 581
amnesia with p. 581
Sam Gillespie, BSc
In the movie The Bourne Identity, CIA assassin Jason Bourne tells his new acquaintance Marie Kreutz about washing up on shore, unconscious, with two bullets in his back.
He tells her that he can’t remember anything that happened before regaining consciousness, saying: “No, I’m serious. I don’t know who I am, I don’t know where I’m going, none of it.”
Jason Bourne has amnesia which refers to lacking memory.
Now, memory can be divided into two main types.
The first is implicit memory, also known as procedural memory.
Procedural memory refers to replicating the sorts of skills you can perform automatically, without thinking much about it.
For example, walking, riding a bike, or texting—anything that has become a habit.
The second type of memory is explicit memory, also known as declarative memory. Declarative memory refers to retaining and recalling facts—the sort of stuff you need to win a trivia contest.
These memories do take some degree of conscious effort to retrieve; when trying to remember things like, “How many countries start with the letter J?”, most of us need to stop and focus.
You can think of procedural memory as “remembering how,” and declarative memory as “remembering what.”
When we talk about amnesia, we really mean that some part of a person’s declarative memory, the “remembering what” part, has been affected.
Jason Bourne may not remember who he is, but he has no problem remembering how to speak foreign languages or how to fight.
Now, the process of forming declarative memory can be broken down into four stages, each involving specific parts of the brain.
The first stage is encoding, which occurs in the prefrontal cortex.
Encoding begins as soon as you first sense something.
Say you’re tasting a strawberry. Encoding would involve classifying the strawberry according to sweetness, size, color and texture.
Think of encoding as a process of breaking down an experience into manageable parts for the rest of the brain to use.
The second stage is consolidation.
Consolidation occurs in the hippocampus, deep within the temporal lobes.
In consolidation, the encoded bits of information like the sweetness, size, and texture of the strawberry are linked up to existing memories.
Think of consolidation as solidifying the memory. Comparing that information about the strawberry with memories you already have, like eating a raspberry or a blueberry, helps determine where to put that new information in your memory.
When you consolidate a memory you are organizing it in a way that will be easier to recall.
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