Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

Summary of Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a degenerative disorder of the corticospinal tract that involves the death of neurons. ALS is characterized by stiff muscles, muscle twitching, and gradually worsening weakness due to muscles decreasing in size. This results in difficulty speaking, swallowing, and eventually breathing. Most cases are sporadic however there can be a gene mutation in zinc-copper superoxide dismutase (SODl) which leads to free radical damage to neurons. 

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Pathology

Nervous system

Central nervous system disorders
Central and peripheral nervous system disorders
Peripheral nervous system disorders
Autonomic nervous system disorders
Nervous system pathology review

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Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

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High Yield Notes
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Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

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Deficiency of the enzyme is a common cause of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

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USMLE® Step 1 style questions USMLE

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USMLE® Step 2 style questions USMLE

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A 27-year-old woman comes to the office because of a 2-month history of continued uncontrollable episodes of crying. Her medical history is relevant for bipolar disorder type II and a recent traumatic brain injury. When asking the patient how she feels, she starts frenetically laughing and crying at the same time. After her crying episode, the patient feels embarrassed and claims to have similar episodes without an underlying emotional reason. Her temperature is 36.7°C (98.2°F), pulse is 71/min, respirations are 20/min, blood pressure is 112/70 mmHg. Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis?   

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