Anal conditions: Clinical (To be retired)


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Anal conditions: Clinical (To be retired)

Medicine and surgery

Allergy and immunology

Antihistamines for allergies


Cardiology, cardiac surgery and vascular surgery

Coronary artery disease: Clinical (To be retired)

Heart failure: Clinical (To be retired)

Syncope: Clinical (To be retired)

Hypertension: Clinical (To be retired)

Hypercholesterolemia: Clinical (To be retired)

Peripheral vascular disease: Clinical (To be retired)

Leg ulcers: Clinical (To be retired)

Adrenergic antagonists: Alpha blockers

Adrenergic antagonists: Beta blockers

ACE inhibitors, ARBs and direct renin inhibitors

Thiazide and thiazide-like diuretics

Calcium channel blockers

Lipid-lowering medications: Statins

Lipid-lowering medications: Fibrates

Miscellaneous lipid-lowering medications

Antiplatelet medications

Dermatology and plastic surgery

Hypersensitivity skin reactions: Clinical (To be retired)

Eczematous rashes: Clinical (To be retired)

Papulosquamous skin disorders: Clinical (To be retired)

Alopecia: Clinical (To be retired)

Hypopigmentation skin disorders: Clinical (To be retired)

Benign hyperpigmented skin lesions: Clinical (To be retired)

Skin cancer: Clinical (To be retired)

Endocrinology and ENT (Otolaryngology)

Diabetes mellitus: Clinical (To be retired)

Hyperthyroidism: Clinical (To be retired)

Hypothyroidism and thyroiditis: Clinical (To be retired)

Dizziness and vertigo: Clinical (To be retired)

Hyperthyroidism medications

Hypothyroidism medications


Hypoglycemics: Insulin secretagogues

Miscellaneous hypoglycemics

Gastroenterology and general surgery

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD): Clinical (To be retired)

Peptic ulcers and stomach cancer: Clinical (To be retired)

Diarrhea: Clinical (To be retired)

Malabsorption: Clinical (To be retired)

Colorectal cancer: Clinical (To be retired)

Diverticular disease: Clinical (To be retired)

Anal conditions: Clinical (To be retired)

Cirrhosis: Clinical (To be retired)

Breast cancer: Clinical (To be retired)

Laxatives and cathartics


Acid reducing medications

Hematology and oncology

Anemia: Clinical (To be retired)

Anticoagulants: Warfarin

Anticoagulants: Direct factor inhibitors

Antiplatelet medications

Infectious diseases

Pneumonia: Clinical (To be retired)

Urinary tract infections: Clinical (To be retired)

Skin and soft tissue infections: Clinical (To be retired)

Protein synthesis inhibitors: Aminoglycosides

Antimetabolites: Sulfonamides and trimethoprim

Miscellaneous cell wall synthesis inhibitors

Protein synthesis inhibitors: Tetracyclines

Cell wall synthesis inhibitors: Penicillins

Miscellaneous protein synthesis inhibitors

Cell wall synthesis inhibitors: Cephalosporins

DNA synthesis inhibitors: Metronidazole

DNA synthesis inhibitors: Fluoroquinolones

Herpesvirus medications



Miscellaneous antifungal medications

Anti-mite and louse medications

Nephrology and urology

Chronic kidney disease: Clinical (To be retired)

Kidney stones: Clinical (To be retired)

Urinary incontinence: Pathology review

ACE inhibitors, ARBs and direct renin inhibitors

PDE5 inhibitors

Adrenergic antagonists: Alpha blockers

Neurology and neurosurgery

Stroke: Clinical (To be retired)

Lower back pain: Clinical (To be retired)

Headaches: Clinical (To be retired)

Migraine medications

Pulmonology and thoracic surgery

Asthma: Clinical (To be retired)

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): Clinical (To be retired)

Lung cancer: Clinical (To be retired)

Antihistamines for allergies

Bronchodilators: Beta 2-agonists and muscarinic antagonists

Bronchodilators: Leukotriene antagonists and methylxanthines

Pulmonary corticosteroids and mast cell inhibitors

Rheumatology and orthopedic surgery

Joint pain: Clinical (To be retired)

Rheumatoid arthritis: Clinical (To be retired)

Lower back pain: Clinical (To be retired)

Anatomy clinical correlates: Clavicle and shoulder

Anatomy clinical correlates: Arm, elbow and forearm

Anatomy clinical correlates: Wrist and hand

Anatomy clinical correlates: Median, ulnar and radial nerves

Anatomy clinical correlates: Bones, joints and muscles of the back

Anatomy clinical correlates: Hip, gluteal region and thigh

Anatomy clinical correlates: Knee

Anatomy clinical correlates: Leg and ankle

Anatomy clinical correlates: Foot

Acetaminophen (Paracetamol)

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs


Opioid agonists, mixed agonist-antagonists and partial agonists

Antigout medications

Non-biologic disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs)

Osteoporosis medications


Anal conditions: Clinical (To be retired)

USMLE® Step 2 questions

0 / 11 complete


USMLE® Step 2 style questions USMLE

of complete

A 70-year-old man comes to the office because he has had increasing frequency of urination. He says that he has to get out of bed about five times per night to go to the bathroom. Further examination is performed and he is diagnosed with benign prostatic hyperplasia. Which of the following is the most appropriate management for this patient? 


Content Reviewers

Rishi Desai, MD, MPH

The anus is the final 3 to 4 centimeters of the gastrointestinal tract, and it extends from the rectum to the anal margin.

The top and bottom of the anal canal are surrounded by the internal and the external anal sphincters, which are two muscular rings that control defecation.

The internal sphincter is under involuntary control, while the external sphincter is under voluntary control.

Within the anal canal, there are mucosal membrane infoldings that form the anal columns.

And at the base of these columns, there is the dentate or pectinate line, which divides the upper two thirds and lower third of the anal canal.

Above the dentate line, there’s the mucosa is lined by simple columnar epithelium, and below the dentate line, there’s the anoderm, which has no hair and sebaceous and sweat glands, and is lined by squamous epithelium.

Now, hemorrhoids are normal vascular structures in the anal canal that act as cushions for the stool as it passes through.

Hemorrhoidal disease is when hemorrhoids get swollen or inflamed; but the term "hemorrhoid" is often used to refer to the disease.

Hemorrhoids are often caused by chronically or recurrently increased abdominal pressure, from a variety of causes.

For example, straining during bowel movements, chronic diarrhea or constipation, obesity, pregnancy, and old age.

Complications of hemorrhoids can include anemia due to chronic blood loss; strangulation if the blood supply to an internal hemorrhoid is cut off, leading to ischemia; and thrombosed hemorrhoids, which is when blood pools inside a hemorrhoid and forms clots.


Conditions that can be found during anal clinical practice include, but are not limited to: hemorrhoids, anal fissures, abscesses, fistulas, and tumors.

Hemorrhoids are swollen veins in and around the anus. They may cause pain, itching, and bleeding. Anal fissures are tears in the skin around the opening of the anus. They may cause pain and bleeding. Abscesses are collections of pus caused by infection. Fistulas are tunnels that form between two organs or between an organ and the skin. Tumors are solid masses of tissue that form due to abnormal cell growth. They may be cancerous or noncancerous.


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