Anatomy clinical correlates: Knee

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Anatomy clinical correlates: Knee

Lower limb


Bones of the lower limb

Fascia, vessels, and nerves of the lower limb

Anatomy of the anterior and medial thigh

Muscles of the gluteal region and posterior thigh

Vessels and nerves of the gluteal region and posterior thigh

Anatomy of the popliteal fossa

Anatomy of the leg

Anatomy of the foot

Anatomy of the hip joint

Anatomy of the knee joint

Anatomy of the tibiofibular joints

Joints of the ankle and foot

Anatomy clinical correlates

Anatomy clinical correlates: Hip, gluteal region and thigh

Anatomy clinical correlates: Knee

Anatomy clinical correlates: Leg and ankle

Anatomy clinical correlates: Foot



Daniel Afloarei, MD

Sam Gillespie, BSc

Alaina Mueller

Zachary Kevorkian, MSMI

The knee is one of the most complex joints in the human body, and along with the rest of the lower limb there are numerous ligamentous, muscular, and bony structures that are prone to injury. Oftentimes we can injure many of these structures at the same time, but injury to even one of these structures can affect how we walk, dance, or exercise. This video will go over all the relevant anatomy you ‘kneed’ to know in order to understand the clinical conditions affecting the knee.

First up, let’s discuss the Q angle - where “Q” stands for quadriceps. The Q angle is the angle measured between the femur and the tibia.

This angle is created by the femur’s diagonal placement within the thigh and by the tibia’s vertical placement in the leg. This angle is typically below 20 degrees and on average is higher in biologic females, and a normal Q angle allows the weight supported by the knee joint to be centered through the middle of the knee, in the knee’s intercondylar region.

When the Q angle increases over the normal range, it can lead to genu valgum or knock knees. With genu valgum, the increase in Q angle shifts the weight bearing center to the lateral compartment of the knee, which increases the quadriceps lateral pull and causes the medial collateral ligament to overstretch. This can cause joint misalignment and a predisposition for articular degeneration in the lateral compartment of the knee and subsequent gait abnormalities.

To remember the knock knee appearance of genu valgum, think of the ‘g’ as standing for ‘gum’ sticking the knees together!

Alternatively, when the Q angle is below normal range, a genu varum alignment can occur where the legs angulate away from the midline and create a bow legged appearance. This results in the weight bearing center being shifted through the medial compartment of the knee, stretching the lateral capsule lateral collateral ligament. So this time, there’s joint misalignment and a predisposition to articular degeneration in the medial compartment of the knee and subsequent gait abnormalities.


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