Anatomy clinical correlates: Other abdominal organs

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Anatomy clinical correlates: Other abdominal organs

Subspeciality surgery

Cardiothoracic surgery

Valvular heart disease: Clinical (To be retired)

Chest trauma: Clinical (To be retired)

Anatomy clinical correlates: Thoracic wall

Anatomy clinical correlates: Heart

Anatomy clinical correlates: Pleura and lungs

Anatomy clinical correlates: Mediastinum

ENT (Otolaryngology)

Anatomy clinical correlates: Bones, fascia and muscles of the neck

Anatomy clinical correlates: Skull, face and scalp

Anatomy clinical correlates: Trigeminal nerve (CN V)

Anatomy clinical correlates: Facial (CN VII) and vestibulocochlear (CN VIII) nerves

Anatomy clinical correlates: Glossopharyngeal (CN IX), vagus (X), spinal accessory (CN XI) and hypoglossal (CN XII) nerves

Anatomy clinical correlates: Ear

Anatomy clinical correlates: Temporal regions, oral cavity and nose

Anatomy clinical correlates: Vessels, nerves and lymphatics of the neck

Anatomy clinical correlates: Viscera of the neck


Traumatic brain injury: Clinical (To be retired)

Brain tumors: Clinical (To be retired)

Lower back pain: Clinical (To be retired)

Anatomy clinical correlates: Vertebral canal

Anatomy clinical correlates: Spinal cord pathways

Anatomy clinical correlates: Cerebral hemispheres

Anatomy clinical correlates: Anterior blood supply to the brain

Anatomy clinical correlates: Cerebellum and brainstem


Eye conditions: Refractive errors, lens disorders and glaucoma: Pathology review

Eye conditions: Retinal disorders: Pathology review

Eye conditions: Inflammation, infections and trauma: Pathology review

Anatomy clinical correlates: Olfactory (CN I) and optic (CN II) nerves

Anatomy clinical correlates: Oculomotor (CN III), trochlear (CN IV) and abducens (CN VI) nerves

Anatomy clinical correlates: Eye

Orthopedic surgery

Anatomy clinical correlates: Clavicle and shoulder

Anatomy clinical correlates: Axilla

Anatomy clinical correlates: Arm, elbow and forearm

Anatomy clinical correlates: Wrist and hand

Anatomy clinical correlates: Median, ulnar and radial nerves

Anatomy clinical correlates: Bones, joints and muscles of the back

Anatomy clinical correlates: Hip, gluteal region and thigh

Anatomy clinical correlates: Knee

Anatomy clinical correlates: Leg and ankle

Anatomy clinical correlates: Foot

Plastic surgery

Burns: Clinical (To be retired)


Penile conditions: Pathology review

Prostate disorders and cancer: Pathology review

Testicular tumors: Pathology review

Kidney stones: Clinical (To be retired)

Renal cysts and cancer: Clinical (To be retired)

Urinary incontinence: Pathology review

Testicular and scrotal conditions: Pathology review

Anatomy clinical correlates: Male pelvis and perineum

Anatomy clinical correlates: Other abdominal organs

Androgens and antiandrogens

PDE5 inhibitors

Adrenergic antagonists: Alpha blockers

Vascular surgery

Peripheral vascular disease: Clinical (To be retired)

Leg ulcers: Clinical (To be retired)

Aortic aneurysms and dissections: Clinical (To be retired)


Content Reviewers

Viviana Popa, MD

Arjun Maini


Anca-Elena Stefan, MD

Jake Ryan

Alaina Mueller

Patricia Nguyen, MScBMC

The abdominal cavity is home to plenty of organs. Some of them, like the stomach and intestines, are part of the gastrointestinal tract. Other organs, like the liver, gallbladder and pancreas, help with digestion, even though they’re not part of the GI tract itself. And then there are also organs like the spleen, kidneys and ureters, which are part of other important, non gastrointestinal systems. So let’s take a look at the injuries and diseases that can affect these abdominal organs.

First off, we have portal hypertension, which basically means increased pressure in the portal venous system. This is most commonly caused by liver cirrhosis, but can also be caused by vascular obstruction. Some causes of vascular obstruction include portal vein thrombosis, Budd-Chiari syndrome which is thrombosis or compression of the hepatic veins, as well as the parasitic flatworm infection known as schistosomiasis.

Okay, now, when fibrosis in the liver from cirrhosis obstructs the portal vein, the pressure rises in the portal vein and into its tributaries. This large volume of congested blood flows out from the portal system into the systemic system at the sites of portosystemic anastomoses, also called portocaval anastomoses.

The first site of portosystemic anastomosis is at the lower esophagus. At this point, the high pressure in the portal system can reach the anastomosis between the left gastric veins and the esophageal veins in the lower esophagus, causing engorged varicose veins which may then go on to rupture and lead to upper gastrointestinal bleeding.


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