Anatomy of the abdominal viscera: Esophagus and stomach

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Anatomy of the abdominal viscera: Esophagus and stomach

Abdomen

Anatomy

Abdominal quadrants, regions and planes

Anatomy of the anterolateral abdominal wall

Anatomy of the abdominal viscera: Blood supply of the foregut, midgut and hindgut

Anatomy of the abdominal viscera: Esophagus and stomach

Anatomy of the abdominal viscera: Small intestine

Anatomy of the abdominal viscera: Large intestine

Anatomy of the abdominal viscera: Pancreas and spleen

Anatomy of the abdominal viscera: Kidneys, ureters and suprarenal glands

Anatomy of the abdominal viscera: Innervation of the abdominal viscera

Anatomy of the abdominal viscera: Liver, biliary ducts and gallbladder

Anatomy of the diaphragm

Anatomy of the inguinal region

Anatomy of the muscles and nerves of the posterior abdominal wall

Anatomy of the peritoneum and peritoneal cavity

Anatomy of the vessels of the posterior abdominal wall

Anatomy clinical correlates

Anatomy clinical correlates: Anterior and posterior abdominal wall

Anatomy clinical correlates: Viscera of the gastrointestinal tract

Anatomy clinical correlates: Peritoneum and diaphragm

Anatomy clinical correlates: Other abdominal organs

Anatomy clinical correlates: Inguinal region

Notes

Anatomy of the abdominal viscera: Esophagus and stomach

Figure 1: Muscular layers of esophagus. A. Circular and longitudinal layers. B. Type of muscle found throughout the esophagus.
Figure 2: A. Abdominal portion of the esophagus B. Natural constrictions of the esophagus. 
Figure 3: Arterial supply of the esophagus. 
Figure 4: Venous drainage of the esophagus. 
Figure 5: Lymphatic drainage of the esophagus. 
Figure 6: Sympathetic and parasympathetic innervation of the esophagus. 
Figure 7: A. Parts of the stomach B. Muscular layers of stomach. C. Longitudinal section of stomach (anterior wall removed) revealing gastric mucosa. 
Figure 8: Arterial supply of stomach. 
Figure 9: Venous drainage of the stomach. 
Figure 10: Lymphatic drainage of the stomach. 
Figure 11: Schematic illustration of the sympathetic and parasympathetic innervation of the stomach. 
UNLABELLED

Transcript

Contributors

Alexandru Duhaniuc, MD

Kaylee Neff

Alaina Mueller

Patricia Nguyen, MScBMC

Osmosis knows that anatomy can be overwhelming, but hopefully this video on the esophagus and stomach can make it a bit easier, so let's begin “digesting” this content together! The esophagus and the stomach are part of the upper digestive tract and are involved in the first phases of digestion. We are going to use the pizza we ate for dinner last night as an example to help us explore the pathway of the esophagus and stomach.

Now, let’s start with the esophagus, which is a muscular tube that carries food from the pharynx to the stomach. We can think about the esophagus as a subway that our food travels in between these two structures. After the pizza we ate has been chewed and swallowed, the muscles of the esophagus help propel the bolus towards the stomach in a wave-like motion called peristalsis.

The esophagus is made up of two muscular layers: an internal circular layer and an external longitudinal layer. In its proximal or superior third, the external layer consists of striated skeletal muscle, which is under voluntary control, while its distal or inferior third is made up of smooth muscle, which is under involuntary control.

And as you’d expect, the middle third is a transitional segment that consists of a mix of both types of muscle. The esophagus follows the curve of the vertebral column as it descends through the neck and into the mediastinum.

Once it reaches the diaphragm, it passes through the esophageal hiatus, just to the left of the median plane at the level of the T10 vertebra, where it becomes the abdominal esophagus. The abdominal esophagus finishes its journey by becoming continuous with the stomach through the cardial orifice, which is surrounded by the cardiac sphincter.

Sources

  1. "Clinically Oriented Anatomy, 7e" Wolters Kluwer (2017)
  2. "Stomach" Radiopaedia (2021)
Elsevier

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