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Pelvis and perineum
Anatomy of the female reproductive organs of the pelvis
Anatomy of the female urogenital triangle
Anatomy of the gastrointestinal organs of the pelvis and perineum
Anatomy of the male reproductive organs of the pelvis
Anatomy of the male urogenital triangle
Anatomy of the pelvic cavity
Anatomy of the pelvic girdle
Anatomy of the perineum
Anatomy of the urinary organs of the pelvis
Arteries and veins of the pelvis
Nerves and lymphatics of the pelvis
Anatomy clinical correlates: Female pelvis and perineum
Anatomy clinical correlates: Male pelvis and perineum
The diamond shaped perineum is divided into two triangles, the urogential triangle anteriorly and the anal triangle posteriorly. The urogenital triangle differs between males and females. In males, it contains male external genitalia and the perineal muscles. Let’s start with the male external genitalia, which includes the membranous - or intermediate - urethra, the spongy urethra, the scrotum, and the penis.
The membranous urethra begins at the inferior surface of the prostate gland, called the apex, then it passes through the deep perineal pouch, which houses the deep perineal muscles: the deep transverse perineal muscles and the external urethral sphincter. The deep transverse perineal muscle extends from the medial surface of the ischium to the perineal body. The external urethral sphincter is a circular muscle that surrounds the membranous part of the urethra and compresses it to maintain urinary continence. The deep perineal muscles are innervated by the deep branch of the perineal nerve.
Now, in the deep perineal pouch, posterolateral to the membranous urethra are a pair of pea-shaped glands called the bulbourethral or Cowper glands. The ducts of these glands cross the deep perineal pouch with the membranous urethra, and terminate by emptying into the proximal part of the spongy urethra. During sexual arousal, these glands secrete mucus-like secretion into the urethra.
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