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Abdominal quadrants, regions and planes
Anatomy of the abdominal viscera: Blood supply of the foregut, midgut and hindgut
Anatomy of the abdominal viscera: Esophagus and stomach
Anatomy of the abdominal viscera: Innervation of the abdominal viscera
Anatomy of the abdominal viscera: Kidneys, ureters and suprarenal glands
Anatomy of the abdominal viscera: Large intestine
Anatomy of the abdominal viscera: Liver, biliary ducts and gallbladder
Anatomy of the abdominal viscera: Pancreas and spleen
Anatomy of the abdominal viscera: Small intestine
Anatomy of the anterolateral abdominal wall
Anatomy of the diaphragm
Anatomy of the inguinal region
Anatomy of the muscles and nerves of the posterior abdominal wall
Anatomy of the peritoneum and peritoneal cavity
Anatomy of the vessels of the posterior abdominal wall
Anatomy clinical correlates: Anterior and posterior abdominal wall
Anatomy clinical correlates: Inguinal region
Anatomy clinical correlates: Other abdominal organs
Anatomy clinical correlates: Peritoneum and diaphragm
Anatomy clinical correlates: Viscera of the gastrointestinal tract
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The posterior abdominal wall is a complex area of the body made up of muscles, vessels and nerves that work together to hold abdominal organs in place, adjust our posture, stabilize the hip joint and even flex our thighs on leg day!
The main paired muscles of the posterior abdominal wall include psoas major, iliacus and quadratus lumborum; and naturally, for those muscles to work properly, they receive innervation from various nerves.
Okay, now let’s take a closer look at these muscles! First up is the psoas major, which is a long, thick muscle that lies lateral to the lumbar vertebrae. It originates superiorly on the transverse processes of the bodies, and adjacent intervertebral discs of the T12 through L5 vertebrae.
The psoas major passes inferolaterally, deep to the inguinal ligament in order to insert on the lesser trochanter of the femur. Finally, approximately half the population has a psoas minor muscle that sits on the anterior aspect of each psoas major muscle.
Now, the psoas major muscle is covered by the psoas fascia or the psoas sheath, which is attached medially to the lumbar vertebrae and pelvic brim. The psoas sheath is thickened superiorly forming the medial arcuate ligament.
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