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Anatomy of the pharynx and esophagus
Anatomy of the oral cavity
Anatomy of the salivary glands
Anatomy of the tongue
Abdominal quadrants, regions and planes
Anatomy of the anterolateral abdominal wall
Anatomy of the abdominal viscera: Blood supply of the foregut, midgut and hindgut
Anatomy of the abdominal viscera: Esophagus and stomach
Anatomy of the abdominal viscera: Small intestine
Anatomy of the abdominal viscera: Large intestine
Anatomy of the abdominal viscera: Pancreas and spleen
Anatomy of the gastrointestinal organs of the pelvis and perineum
Anatomy of the abdominal viscera: Innervation of the abdominal viscera
Anatomy of the abdominal viscera: Liver, biliary ducts and gallbladder
Anatomy of the diaphragm
Anatomy of the inguinal region
Anatomy of the muscles and nerves of the posterior abdominal wall
Anatomy of the peritoneum and peritoneal cavity
Anatomy of the vessels of the posterior abdominal wall
Anatomy clinical correlates: Anterior and posterior abdominal wall
Anatomy clinical correlates: Viscera of the gastrointestinal tract
Anatomy clinical correlates: Peritoneum and diaphragm
Anatomy clinical correlates: Other abdominal organs
Anatomy clinical correlates: Inguinal region
Anatomy of the pharynx and esophagus
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|Superior pharyngeal constrictor|
|Middle pharyngeal constrictor|
|Inferior pharyngeal constrictor|
Alexandru Duhaniuc, MD
Sam Gillespie, BSc
Jennifer Montague, PhD
Elizabeth Nixon-Shapiro, MSMI, CMI
The cervical viscera are composed of three layers based on their main functions.
The most superficial layer is the endocrine layer which contains the thyroid and parathyroid glands, then there’s the respiratory layer which contains the larynx and the trachea, and finally, the deepest layer is the alimentary layer which contains the pharynx and the esophagus.
So, let’s start with the pharynx which also has a respiratory function because it conducts air to the larynx, from where it passes through the trachea and into the lungs.
The pharynx extends from the cranial base to the inferior border of the cricoid cartilage anteriorly and the inferior border of the C6 vertebra posteriorly.
It’s located posterior to the nasal and oral cavities and it extends inferiorly past the larynx, where it continues with the esophagus.
Now, the pharyngeal wall consists of three layers: the buccopharyngeal fascia is the most external layer, covering the pharynx and, inferiorly, it’s continuous with the pretracheal fascia.
Then, there is a muscular layer which has an outer circular part and an inner longitudinal part, and the innermost mucous membrane which has a thick submucosa that contributes to the pharyngobasilar fascia.
Moreover, the posterior wall of the pharynx lies against the prevertebral layer of the deep cervical fascia.
The interior of the pharynx is divided into three parts: the nasopharynx which is located posterior to the nose and superior to the soft palate, the oropharynx which is located posterior to the mouth, and the laryngopharynx which is located posterior to the larynx.
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