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Fibrocystic breast changes
Paget disease of the breast
Intrauterine growth restriction
Pelvic inflammatory disease
Gestational trophoblastic disease
Germ cell ovarian tumor
Polycystic ovary syndrome
Premature ovarian failure
Sex cord-gonadal stromal tumor
Surface epithelial-stromal tumor
Congenital cytomegalovirus (NORD)
Congenital rubella syndrome
Neonatal herpes simplex
Preeclampsia & eclampsia
Female sexual interest and arousal disorder
Genito-pelvic pain and penetration disorder
Fetal alcohol syndrome
Fetal hydantoin syndrome
Hypospadias and epispadias
Benign prostatic hyperplasia
Male hypoactive sexual desire disorder
Benign breast conditions: Pathology review
Breast cancer: Pathology review
Cervical cancer: Pathology review
Complications during pregnancy: Pathology review
Congenital TORCH infections: Pathology review
Disorders of sex chromosomes: Pathology review
Disorders of sexual development and sex hormones: Pathology review
HIV and AIDS: Pathology review
Ovarian cysts and tumors: Pathology review
Penile conditions: Pathology review
Prostate disorders and cancer: Pathology review
Sexually transmitted infections: Vaginitis and cervicitis: Pathology review
Sexually transmitted infections: Warts and ulcers: Pathology review
Testicular and scrotal conditions: Pathology review
Testicular tumors: Pathology review
Uterine disorders: Pathology review
Vaginal and vulvar disorders: Pathology review
Androgen insensitivity syndrome
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androgen insensitivity syndrome p. 663
androgen insensitivity syndrome p. 663
Androgens are responsible for primary sex characteristics like development of the penis and testes as well as secondary sex characteristics like height and body shape, so in androgen insensitivity syndrome all of these can be affected.
Okay, normally, very early on in fetal life, male and female genital tissues are undifferentiated and look identical.
In males, a gene on the Y chromosome, called the sex-determining region Y gene, or SRY gene for short, helps the fetal gonads turn into the testes.
A small fraction of testosterone, gets converted by the enzyme 5α- reductase into its more potent form, called dihydrotestosterone, which is mostly responsible for development of male external genitalia.
Looking closely at these structures, at the top there’s the genital tubercle, which is a small projection.
Just below that, there's the urethral groove, which is the external opening of the urogenital sinus or the future urethra and bladder and is surrounded by the urethral folds and the labioscrotal swellings.
Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) is a rare genetic disorder that affects how the body responds to testosterone. Testosterone is a hormone that is responsible for the development and maintenance of male sex characteristics. People with AIS either do not have any testosterone receptors, or their receptors are not sensitive to testosterone. As a result, an individual presents with females' physical characteristics, despite having XY chromosomes (genetic makeup for males).
There are three types of AIS: complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS), partial androgen insensitivity syndrome (PAIS), and mild androgen insensitivity syndrome (MAIS). CAIS is the most severe type, while MAIS is the mildest. Individuals with AIS will usually have a normal female phenotype of appearance, but they may have infrequent or absent periods and be infertile.
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