Introduction to the immune system
MHC class I and MHC class II molecules
B-cell activation and differentiation
Cell-mediated immunity of CD4 cells
Cell-mediated immunity of natural killer and CD8 cells
Somatic hypermutation and affinity maturation
Contracting the immune response and peripheral tolerance
B- and T-cell memory
Anergy, exhaustion, and clonal deletion
Type I hypersensitivity
Type II hypersensitivity
Type III hypersensitivity
Type IV hypersensitivity
Innate immune system
0 / 2 complete
0 / 1 complete
anergy p. 108
Anergy is a state in which the immune system is unable to mount a normal immune response against a specific antigen. This may be caused by a defect in the molecular mechanisms that initiate T-cell activation or by a block in the signal transduction pathway downstream of the T-cell receptor.
Exhaustion is a state of T cell dysfunction that results from many chronic infections or cancer. It is characterized by the loss of cytolytic function, inability to produce cytokines, and downregulation of markers of activation.
Clonal deletion is the process whereby self-reactive T cells die as a result of apoptosis. The process of clonal deletion is an important mechanism for maintaining self-tolerance and preventing autoimmunity.
Latest on COVID-19
Nurse Practitioner (NP)
Physician Assistant (PA)
Create custom content
Raise the Line Podcast
Copyright © 2024 Elsevier, its licensors, and contributors. All rights are reserved, including those for text and data mining, AI training, and similar technologies.
Cookies are used by this site.
Terms and Conditions
USMLE® is a joint program of the Federation of State Medical Boards (FSMB) and the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME). COMLEX-USA® is a registered trademark of The National Board of Osteopathic Medical Examiners, Inc. NCLEX-RN® is a registered trademark of the National Council of State Boards of Nursing, Inc. Test names and other trademarks are the property of the respective trademark holders. None of the trademark holders are endorsed by nor affiliated with Osmosis or this website.