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Cardiovascular system

Vascular disorders

Arterial disease

Angina pectoris

Stable angina

Unstable angina

Myocardial infarction

Prinzmetal angina

Coronary steal syndrome

Peripheral artery disease

Subclavian steal syndrome


Aortic dissection


Behcet's disease

Kawasaki disease


Hypertensive emergency

Renal artery stenosis

Coarctation of the aorta

Cushing syndrome

Conn syndrome


Polycystic kidney disease


Orthostatic hypotension


Familial hypercholesterolemia



Chronic venous insufficiency


Deep vein thrombosis




Vascular tumors

Human herpesvirus 8 (Kaposi sarcoma)


Congenital heart defects

Truncus arteriosus

Transposition of the great vessels

Total anomalous pulmonary venous return

Tetralogy of Fallot

Hypoplastic left heart syndrome

Patent ductus arteriosus

Ventricular septal defect

Coarctation of the aorta

Atrial septal defect

Cardiac arrhythmias

Atrial flutter

Atrial fibrillation

Premature atrial contraction

Atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT)

Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome

Ventricular tachycardia

Brugada syndrome

Premature ventricular contraction

Long QT syndrome and Torsade de pointes

Ventricular fibrillation

Atrioventricular block

Bundle branch block

Pulseless electrical activity

Valvular disorders

Tricuspid valve disease

Pulmonary valve disease

Mitral valve disease

Aortic valve disease


Dilated cardiomyopathy

Restrictive cardiomyopathy

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

Heart failure

Heart failure

Cor pulmonale

Cardiac infections



Rheumatic heart disease

Pericardial disorders

Pericarditis and pericardial effusion

Cardiac tamponade

Dressler syndrome

Cardiac tumors

Cardiac tumors

Cardiovascular system pathology review

Acyanotic congenital heart defects: Pathology review

Cyanotic congenital heart defects: Pathology review

Atherosclerosis and arteriosclerosis: Pathology review

Coronary artery disease: Pathology review

Peripheral artery disease: Pathology review

Valvular heart disease: Pathology review

Cardiomyopathies: Pathology review

Heart failure: Pathology review

Supraventricular arrhythmias: Pathology review

Ventricular arrhythmias: Pathology review

Heart blocks: Pathology review

Aortic dissections and aneurysms: Pathology review

Pericardial disease: Pathology review

Endocarditis: Pathology review

Hypertension: Pathology review

Shock: Pathology review

Vasculitis: Pathology review

Cardiac and vascular tumors: Pathology review

Dyslipidemias: Pathology review




0 / 16 complete

USMLE® Step 1 questions

0 / 2 complete

High Yield Notes

6 pages



of complete


USMLE® Step 1 style questions USMLE

of complete

A 35-year-old man comes to the emergency department with a one day history of dull chest pain. The patient reports he was out for a jog yesterday when he suddenly experienced dull chest pain radiating to the back, with associated shortness of breath. The patient reports he is otherwise healthy but has smoked 5-10 cigarettes per day for the past ten years. His temperature is 37.0°C (98.6°F), pulse is 78/min, respirations are 18/min, blood pressure is 130/66 mmHg, and O2 saturation is 99% on room air. He does not appear to be in acute distress. Physical examination shows a thin, tall man, with a concave anterior chest wall. Cardiovascular examination shows 2+ pulses in the upper extremities bilaterally, and a mid-systolic murmur at the cardiac apex is heard on auscultation. Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis?  

External References

First Aid








ADPKD (Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease)

saccular aneurysms and p. 533

Aneurysms p. 533

atherosclerosis p. 308

coarctation of aorta p. 305

Ehlers-Danlos syndrome and p. 49

superior vena cava syndrome p. 710

ventricular p. 311, 316


aneurysm of p. 308

Atherosclerosis p. 308

abdominal aortic aneurysms and p. 308

aortic aneurysms p. 728

Bicuspid aortic valve

thoracic aortic aneurysms and p. 308

“Blown pupil p. 561

saccular aneurysms p. 533

Circle of Willis p. 519

saccular aneurysms p. 533

Connective tissue diseases

thoracic aortic aneurysms and p. 308

Coronary aneurysms p. 717

Ehlers-Danlos syndrome p. 49

aneurysm association with p. 533

Hemiparesis p. 541

saccular aneurysms p. 533

Hypertension p. 306

Charcot-Bouchard microaneurysms p. 533

thoracic aortic aneurysms and p. 308

Marfan syndrome

aortic aneurysms p. 728

thoracic aortic aneurysms and p. 308

Middle cerebral artery (MCA)

saccular aneurysms p. 533

Saccular aneurysms p. 533

Ehlers-Danlos syndrome p. 49

renal cyst disorders and p. 630


abdominal aortic aneurysms and p. 308

saccular aneurysms p. 533

Syphilis p. 145

thoracic aortic aneurysms and p. 308

Tertiary syphilis

aortic aneurysms p. 728

Visual field defects p. 562

saccular aneurysms and p. 533


Content Reviewers

Rishi Desai, MD, MPH


Tanner Marshall, MS

The word “aneurysm” comes from the Greek word aneurysma, meaning “dilation.” This makes sense because aneurysms are defined as abnormal dilations in a blood vessel. A bulge in a blood vessel is officially labelled as an aneurysm when the diameter of the bulge is approximately one and a half times larger than the normal diameter of the blood vessel.

Aneurysms can happen to any blood vessel in your body, including the aorta, the femoral artery, the iliac artery, the popliteal artery, and the cerebral arteries. They can also happen in your veins too, but those are less common as blood pressure in veins is much, much lower than in the arteries.

There are two major categories of aneurysms: true aneurysms and pseudoaneurysms. In true aneurysms, all the layers of the blood vessel wall dilate together. True aneurysms that balloon out symmetrically on all sides of the blood vessel are called fusiform aneurysms, whereas asymmetrically shaped aneurysms balloon out on one side of the blood vessel. This asymmetrical shape usually happens because for some reason one side of the blood vessel wall experiences higher blood pressure than the rest of the vessel wall, or because the wall was weaker on one side to begin with. Asymmetrical true aneurysms can be called either “saccular” or “berry” aneurysms.

Pseudoaneurysms, on the other hand, are like false aneurysms because they are not actually aneurysms at all. They are caused by a small hole in your blood vessel which allows blood to leak out of the vessel and form a pool of blood that looks like a fusiform or berry aneurysm depending on where the hole is and its size. The blood pools because the surrounding tissues act as walls that contain the blood in one spot.


  1. "Robbins Basic Pathology" Elsevier (2017)
  2. "Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, Twentieth Edition (Vol.1 & Vol.2)" McGraw-Hill Education / Medical (2018)
  3. "Pathophysiology of Disease: An Introduction to Clinical Medicine 8E" McGraw-Hill Education / Medical (2018)
  4. "Aneurysms in Vascular Access: State of the Art and Future Developments" The Journal of Vascular Access (2017)
  5. "Open and Endovascular Management of Aortic Aneurysms" Circulation Research (2019)
  6. "Abdominal aortic aneurysms" Current Opinion in Cardiology (1994)

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