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Bundle branch block
Pulseless electrical activity
Atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT)
Premature atrial contraction
Long QT syndrome and Torsade de pointes
Premature ventricular contraction
Rheumatic heart disease
Atrial septal defect
Coarctation of the aorta
Patent ductus arteriosus
Ventricular septal defect
Hypoplastic left heart syndrome
Tetralogy of Fallot
Total anomalous pulmonary venous return
Transposition of the great vessels
Pericarditis and pericardial effusion
Aortic valve disease
Mitral valve disease
Pulmonary valve disease
Tricuspid valve disease
Coronary steal syndrome
Polycystic kidney disease
Renal artery stenosis
Peripheral artery disease
Subclavian steal syndrome
Superior mesenteric artery syndrome
Human herpesvirus 8 (Kaposi sarcoma)
Chronic venous insufficiency
Deep vein thrombosis
Acyanotic congenital heart defects: Pathology review
Aortic dissections and aneurysms: Pathology review
Atherosclerosis and arteriosclerosis: Pathology review
Cardiac and vascular tumors: Pathology review
Cardiomyopathies: Pathology review
Coronary artery disease: Pathology review
Cyanotic congenital heart defects: Pathology review
Dyslipidemias: Pathology review
Endocarditis: Pathology review
Heart blocks: Pathology review
Heart failure: Pathology review
Hypertension: Pathology review
Pericardial disease: Pathology review
Peripheral artery disease: Pathology review
Shock: Pathology review
Supraventricular arrhythmias: Pathology review
Valvular heart disease: Pathology review
Vasculitis: Pathology review
Ventricular arrhythmias: Pathology review
Angina comes from the latin angere, which means to strangle, and pectoris comes from pectus, meaning chest—so angina pectoris loosely translates to “strangling of the chest”, which actually makes a lot of sense, because angina pectoris is caused by reduced blood flow which causes ischemia to the heart muscle, or lack of oxygen to the heart, almost like the heart’s being strangled which causes terrible chest pain.
Stable angina or chronic angina is the most common type of angina and it usually happens when the patient has greater than or equal to 70% stenosis, meaning 70% of the artery is blocked by plaque buildup.
This small opening that blood flows through might be enough to supply the heart during rest, but if the body demands more blood and oxygen, like during exercise or stressful situations, the heart has to work harder, and therefore needs more blood and oxygen itself.
It’s during these time of exertion or emotional stress that people with stable angina have chest pain, since the blood flow isn’t meeting the metabolic demands of the heart muscle, or myocardium.
But the pain usually goes away with rest.
In the majority of cases, the underlying cause of stable angina is atherosclerosis of one or more the coronary arteries—arteries supplying blood to the heart muscles.
Other heart conditions that might lead to stable angina are ones that cause a thickened heart muscle wall, which would require more oxygen.
This increase in muscle size can be due to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy from a genetic cause, or as a result from the heart having to pump against higher pressures, as is the case in aortic stenosis, which is a narrowing of the aortic valve, or hypertension.
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