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Lordosis, kyphosis, and scoliosis
Osteomalacia and rickets
Paget disease of bone
Calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease (pseudogout)
Juvenile idiopathic arthritis
Inclusion body myopathy
Degenerative disc disease
Spinal disc herniation
Achilles tendon rupture
Anterior cruciate ligament injury
Iliotibial band syndrome
Patellar tendon rupture
Patellofemoral pain syndrome
Carpal tunnel syndrome
Thoracic outlet syndrome
Radial head subluxation (Nursemaid elbow)
Rotator cuff tear
Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome
Limited systemic sclerosis (CREST syndrome)
Mixed connective tissue disease
Systemic lupus erythematosus
Developmental dysplasia of the hip
Osgood-Schlatter disease (traction apophysitis)
Slipped capital femoral epiphysis
Back pain: Pathology review
Bone disorders: Pathology review
Bone tumors: Pathology review
Gout and pseudogout: Pathology review
Muscular dystrophies and mitochondrial myopathies: Pathology review
Myalgias and myositis: Pathology review
Neuromuscular junction disorders: Pathology review
Pediatric musculoskeletal disorders: Pathology review
Rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis: Pathology review
Scleroderma: Pathology review
Seronegative and septic arthritis: Pathology review
Sjogren syndrome: Pathology review
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE): Pathology review
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My life with Ankylosing Spondylitis
HLA-B25 and p. 98
labs/findings p. 730
therapeutic antibodies for p. 120
TNF- αinhibitors for p. 497
Ankylosing spondylitis can be broken down - Ankylosing means stiffening, spondylo- refers to the vertebra, and -itis refers to inflammation.
So ankylosing spondylitis is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects the vertebral joints and makes the spine really stiff, but can also cause inflammation in other parts of the body like the eyes and blood vessels.
Ankylosing spondylitis, also called Bechterew disease, is part of a group of diseases called seronegative spondyloarthropathies.
Spondyloarthropathies are all autoimmune diseases that affect the joints, and they’re seronegative, which refers to the fact that rheumatoid factor, which is an autoantibody, is not found in the blood.
Alright, so in the healthy adult, the vertebral column is made up of 33 bones.
From top to bottom, the first seven bones are the cervical vertebrae, the next twelve are the thoracic vertebra and the next five, are the lumbar vertebrae.
Below that is a bone called the sacrum, which is attached to the pelvic bone on either side, called the ilium, and where they meet is the sacroiliac joint.
Below the sacrum is a tiny bone called the coccyx or tailbone.
There are two types of joints between the vertebra.
Between each of the vertebral bodies is an intervertebral disc which is made of type I and type II collagen and has two parts, the annulus fibrosis, an outer fibrous ring, and the nucleus pulposus, an inner jelly-like substance.
This disc forms a joint between each vertebra, and it allows slight movement and acts as a shock absorber.
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a form of arthritis that primarily affects the spine. This chronic condition can lead to fusion of the vertebrae, resulting in a rigid spine. AS can also affect the sacroiliac joints, peripheral joints, and digits, and in severe cases, it can lead to disability. Some of the symptoms seen in AS include back pain, postural abnormalities, buttock pain, and pain in the peripheral joints such as the hips, knees, and ankles.
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