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Antimetabolites: Sulfonamides and trimethoprim
Cell wall synthesis inhibitors: Cephalosporins
Cell wall synthesis inhibitors: Penicillins
DNA synthesis inhibitors: Fluoroquinolones
DNA synthesis inhibitors: Metronidazole
Mechanisms of antibiotic resistance
Miscellaneous cell wall synthesis inhibitors
Miscellaneous protein synthesis inhibitors
Protein synthesis inhibitors: Aminoglycosides
Protein synthesis inhibitors: Tetracyclines
Anthelmintics are a group of antiparasitic antibiotics that treat infections by parasitic worms or helminths.
They are roughly divided into two groups: vermifuges, which stun helminths; and vermicides, which kill them.
Now “helminth” is not a term based on taxonomy; instead, it’s a practical term used for many multicellular, worm-like parasites that can infect humans. These include cestodes, trematodes, and nematodes.
Cestodes are tapeworms that can grow to prodigious size, some even reaching over 20 feet, or 7 meters!
Species like Taenia solium, or pork tapeworm, and Taenia saginata, or beef tapeworm, are transmitted via undercooked pork and beef.
Once eaten, they hang out in the small intestine, living off of the nutrient-rich fluid around them.
They are also hermaphrodites and can lay over 50,000 eggs in their lifetime, so you’re never lonely when you have tapeworms!
The disease itself, taeniasis, can be asymptomatic or it can cause GI symptoms, like abdominal pain, nausea, diarrhea, and weight loss.
However, if the eggs of the Taenia solium found in human feces is ingested, it could cause cysticercosis. This is where newly hatched larvae burrow into different parts of the body like the eyes, which can cause blindness; and also the brain, which can lead to seizures and death.
Next are trematodes, which are more commonly known as flukes.
These parasites live inside freshwater snails and pop out as free swimming larva that search for unsuspecting swimmers, and penetrate the skin through hair follicles to make their way into capillary beds, where they feed on blood.
Liver flukes like Clonorchis and Opisthorchis species also use snails as a host, but their larvae invade fish, that are then eaten by humans.
Nematodes or roundworms are a particularly diverse bunch. Most infections start when a person eats or drinks something contaminated with nematode eggs, which are transmitted through human feces. This is why it’s important to wash your hands after using the bathroom before eating!
Anthelmintic medications are drugs that are used to treat parasitic infections, such as those caused by roundworms and tapeworms. These medications work by killing the parasites or by causing them to be expelled from the body. Some of the more common side effects of anthelmintic drugs include stomach pain, diarrhea, and nausea. In rare cases, these drugs can cause allergic reactions. Common anthelmintic drugs include albendazole, praziquantel, and mebendazole.
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