00:00 / 00:00
Protein synthesis inhibitors: Aminoglycosides
Antimetabolites: Sulfonamides and trimethoprim
Miscellaneous cell wall synthesis inhibitors
Protein synthesis inhibitors: Tetracyclines
Cell wall synthesis inhibitors: Penicillins
Miscellaneous protein synthesis inhibitors
Cell wall synthesis inhibitors: Cephalosporins
DNA synthesis inhibitors: Metronidazole
DNA synthesis inhibitors: Fluoroquinolones
Mechanisms of antibiotic resistance
Integrase and entry inhibitors
Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs)
Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs)
Miscellaneous antifungal medications
Anti-mite and louse medications
Kara Lukasiewicz, PhD, MScBMC
Mites and lice are arthropod ectoparasites, (or external parasites), that live on the surface of the body, like the skin or hair.
Ectoparasiticides are topical medications used to treat these infestations.
Endectocides on the other hand, are multi-purpose antiparasitics that work on both external parasites and some internal parasites, like roundworms.
Now, lice are wingless insects that live off of the blood of their hosts.
There are 3 types of lice that infest humans: head louse that lives in the hair of the scalp; body louse that lives in the hair of the axilla, back, and pubic region; and pubic louse, also called crab louse, that lives in pubic and axillary hair, but also the eyebrows.
Lice infestation is called pediculosis and the main symptom is pruritus, (or itchiness), which is caused by an allergic reaction to louse’s saliva.
Scratching of the bites could also lead to bacterial skin infections.
Another common ectoparasite is the Sarcoptes scabiei mite which causes scabies.
These tiny critters are eight-legged arthropods that are related to spiders.
Unlike spiders, scabies mites burrow into the skin and cause a pimple like rash locally.
Even worse, they tunnel around under the skin, forming elevated tracks that are visible on the skin surface.
The burrowing causes intense itching that’s more frequent at night when the mites are more active.
The most common sites for scabies are between the fingers, on the flexor surface of the wrist, and the extensor surface of the elbow and knees.
They can also be found around the areola of the breast and the pubic region.
Permethrin is an ectoparasiticide and an insecticide. It’s the first line medication for both scabies and pediculosis.
Anti-mite and louse medications are medications that are used to kill or get rid of mites and lice. Mites and lice can cause skin irritation, itching, and other problems. There are different anti-mite and louse medications available, including over-the-counter medications as well as prescription medications.
Some common anti-mite and louse medications include permethrin, malathion, benzyl alcohol, pyrethrins, and piperonyl butoxide. All permethrin, malathion, and benzyl alcohol are used to treat head lice. In addition to treating head lice, malathion is also used to treat scabies, and benzyl alcohol to treat pubic lice. Pyrethrins are a natural insecticide that is derived from chrysanthemums. Piperonyl butoxide is a common ingredient in lice treatments that helps to increase the effectiveness of the pyrethrins.
Copyright © 2023 Elsevier, except certain content provided by third parties
Cookies are used by this site.
USMLE® is a joint program of the Federation of State Medical Boards (FSMB) and the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME). COMLEX-USA® is a registered trademark of The National Board of Osteopathic Medical Examiners, Inc. NCLEX-RN® is a registered trademark of the National Council of State Boards of Nursing, Inc. Test names and other trademarks are the property of the respective trademark holders. None of the trademark holders are endorsed by nor affiliated with Osmosis or this website.