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1st Generation Cephalosporin
2nd Generation Cephalosporin
3rd Generation Cephalosporin
4th Generation Cephalosporin
5th Generation Cephalosporin
Cephalosporins are a large group of broad-spectrum antibiotics, which can be used to treat a wide variety of bacterial infections, including meningitis, pneumonia, urinary tract infections, and sepsis. These antibiotics get their name from Cephalosporium acremonium, a fungus from which they are derived.
Now, cephalosporins belong to beta-lactam antibiotics, which means they have a beta-lactam ring in their core, and they mainly work by disrupting the synthesis of the peptidoglycan layer, a major component of bacterial cell walls. This weakens the bacterial cell wall, ultimately killing the bacteria.
Now, cephalosporins are typically classified into five generations, each being used to treat certain types of bacterial infections.
First-generation cephalosporins include cephalexin, which is administered orally; cefadroxil, which is administered orally and intravenously; and cefazolin, which is given intravenously and intramuscularly.
In general, first-generation cephalosporins are effective against most gram-positive bacteria, such as Staphylococci and Streptococci species; as well as some gram-negative bacteria like Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, and Klebsiella pneumonia.
So, first-generation cephalosporins are used to treat respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, some skin infections; and bone and joint infections. They can also be given as surgical antibiotic prophylaxis, to prevent infections from spreading to deeper tissues during surgical operations.
Next, second-generation cephalosporins include cefaclor and cefprozil which are administered orally; as well as cefotetan and cefoxitin, which are given intravenously and intramuscularly; and cefuroxime, which is given orally and intravenously.
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