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Body fluid compartments
Movement of water between body compartments
Acid-base disturbances: Pathology review
Diabetes insipidus and SIADH: Pathology review
Electrolyte disturbances: Pathology review
Renal failure: Pathology review
Acyanotic congenital heart defects: Pathology review
Adrenal masses: Pathology review
Bacterial and viral skin infections: Pathology review
Bone tumors: Pathology review
Coagulation disorders: Pathology review
Congenital neurological disorders: Pathology review
Cyanotic congenital heart defects: Pathology review
Extrinsic hemolytic normocytic anemia: Pathology review
Eye conditions: Inflammation, infections and trauma: Pathology review
Eye conditions: Refractive errors, lens disorders and glaucoma: Pathology review
Headaches: Pathology review
Intrinsic hemolytic normocytic anemia: Pathology review
Leukemias: Pathology review
Lymphomas: Pathology review
Macrocytic anemia: Pathology review
Microcytic anemia: Pathology review
Mixed platelet and coagulation disorders: Pathology review
Nasal, oral and pharyngeal diseases: Pathology review
Nephritic syndromes: Pathology review
Nephrotic syndromes: Pathology review
Non-hemolytic normocytic anemia: Pathology review
Pediatric brain tumors: Pathology review
Pediatric musculoskeletal disorders: Pathology review
Platelet disorders: Pathology review
Renal and urinary tract masses: Pathology review
Seizures: Pathology review
Viral exanthems of childhood: Pathology review
Adrenal insufficiency: Pathology review
Central nervous system infections: Pathology review
Childhood and early-onset psychological disorders: Pathology review
Congenital gastrointestinal disorders: Pathology review
Diabetes mellitus: Pathology review
Environmental and chemical toxicities: Pathology review
Gastrointestinal bleeding: Pathology review
GERD, peptic ulcers, gastritis, and stomach cancer: Pathology review
Inflammatory bowel disease: Pathology review
Medication overdoses and toxicities: Pathology review
Obstructive lung diseases: Pathology review
Pneumonia: Pathology review
Psychiatric emergencies: Pathology review
Shock: Pathology review
Supraventricular arrhythmias: Pathology review
Traumatic brain injury: Pathology review
Ventricular arrhythmias: Pathology review
Congenital TORCH infections: Pathology review
Jaundice: Pathology review
Respiratory distress syndrome: Pathology review
Autosomal trisomies: Pathology review
Cystic fibrosis: Pathology review
Disorders of sex chromosomes: Pathology review
HIV and AIDS: Pathology review
Miscellaneous genetic disorders: Pathology review
Papulosquamous and inflammatory skin disorders: Pathology review
Anxiety disorders, phobias and stress-related disorders: Pathology Review
Developmental and learning disorders: Pathology review
Eating disorders: Pathology review
Mood disorders: Pathology review
Pharmacodynamics: Agonist, partial agonist and antagonist
Pharmacodynamics: Desensitization and tolerance
Pharmacodynamics: Drug-receptor interactions
Pharmacokinetics: Drug absorption and distribution
Pharmacokinetics: Drug elimination and clearance
Pharmacokinetics: Drug metabolism
Androgens and antiandrogens
Estrogens and antiestrogens
Miscellaneous cell wall synthesis inhibitors
Protein synthesis inhibitors: Tetracyclines
Cell wall synthesis inhibitors: Penicillins
Antihistamines for allergies
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
Antimetabolites: Sulfonamides and trimethoprim
Cell wall synthesis inhibitors: Cephalosporins
DNA synthesis inhibitors: Fluoroquinolones
DNA synthesis inhibitors: Metronidazole
Miscellaneous protein synthesis inhibitors
Protein synthesis inhibitors: Aminoglycosides
Bronchodilators: Beta 2-agonists and muscarinic antagonists
Bronchodilators: Leukotriene antagonists and methylxanthines
Pulmonary corticosteroids and mast cell inhibitors
Anticonvulsants and anxiolytics: Barbiturates
Anticonvulsants and anxiolytics: Benzodiazepines
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Bartonella Herx Part 1 - Beginning Infusion of Rifampin
Antituberculosis medications are agents used to treat tuberculosis, a disease caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Mycobacteria are an interesting bunch, they’re slender, rod-shaped, and need oxygen to survive, in other words, they’re “strict aerobes.”
They’ve got an unusually waxy cell wall, which is mainly a result of the production of mycolic acid.
This waxy cell wall makes them incredibly hardy, and allows them to resist weak disinfectants and survive on dry surfaces for months at a time.
Antituberculosis medications act mainly by preventing the production of mycolic acid and the synthesis of this cell wall.
Although about two billion people worldwide are infected with tuberculosis, or simply ‘TB, the vast majority, about 90-95%, don’t develop symptoms. And this is because usually the immune system can contain it.
So Mycobacterium tuberculosis is usually transmitted via inhalation, which is how they gain entry into the lungs.
TB can avoid the mucus traps and make its way to the deep airways and alveoli where we have macrophages which eat up foreign cells, digest, and destroy them.
With TB, they recognize foreign proteins on their cell surface, and phagocytize them, or essentially package them into a space called a phagosome.
With most cases, the macrophage then fuses the phagosome with a lysosome, which has hydrolytic enzymes that can pretty much break down any biochemical molecule.
TB’s tricky though, and once inside the macrophage, they produce a protein that inhibits this fusion, which allows the mycobacterium to survive.
It doesn’t just survive, though, it proliferates, and creates a localized infection.
Three weeks after initial infection, cell-mediated immunity kicks in, and immune cells surround the site of TB infection, creating a granuloma.
The tissue inside the middle dies as a result, a process referred to as caseous necrosis. This area is known as a “Ghon focus”.
Anti-tuberculosis (TB) medications are drugs used to treat tuberculosis. Common TB medications include Isoniazid (INH), Rifampin (RIF) Pyrazinamide (PZA), and Ethambutol (EMB). Other TB drugs include Streptomycin, Capreomycin, Amikacin, and Levofloxacin. TB drugs are typically administered in combination, which helps minimize resistance to one of the drugs.
Side effects of TB drugs include vitamin B6 deficiency for isoniazid. This is prevented by taking isoniazid with vitamin B6 supplements (pyridoxine). Other side effects include hepatotoxicity for isoniazid, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide; and thrombocytopenia and neutropenia for Rifampin.
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