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Autoimmune hemolytic anemia
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency
Hemolytic disease of the newborn
Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria
Pyruvate kinase deficiency
Sickle cell disease (NORD)
Folate (Vitamin B9) deficiency
Vitamin B12 deficiency
Anemia of chronic disease
Iron deficiency anemia
Vitamin K deficiency
Langerhans cell histiocytosis
Essential thrombocythemia (NORD)
Polycythemia vera (NORD)
Acute intermittent porphyria
Porphyria cutanea tarda
Disseminated intravascular coagulation
Von Willebrand disease
Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance
Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura
Antithrombin III deficiency
Factor V Leiden
Protein C deficiency
Protein S deficiency
Coagulation disorders: Pathology review
Extrinsic hemolytic normocytic anemia: Pathology review
Heme synthesis disorders: Pathology review
Intrinsic hemolytic normocytic anemia: Pathology review
Leukemias: Pathology review
Lymphomas: Pathology review
Macrocytic anemia: Pathology review
Microcytic anemia: Pathology review
Mixed platelet and coagulation disorders: Pathology review
Myeloproliferative disorders: Pathology review
Non-hemolytic normocytic anemia: Pathology review
Plasma cell disorders: Pathology review
Platelet disorders: Pathology review
Thrombosis syndromes (hypercoagulability): Pathology review
Aplastic anemia is a pancytopenia, meaning all blood cell lines are decreased - so the term aplastic anemia, which just refers to low red blood cell count, is actually a misnomer.
So with aplastic anemia, there’s actually anemia, as well as leukocytopenia, or low white blood cells, as well as thrombocytopenia, or low platelet levels.
This condition takes many forms, ranging from mild to severe depending on the cause.
Now, blood cells are produced in the bones of the body, mainly in the bones of the pelvis, ribs and sternum, through a process called hematopoiesis.
This process starts in the bone marrow, the innermost portion of bone, where the hematopoietic stem cells reside.
These serve as progenitor cells for all the different cell types found in the blood.
First, hematopoietic stem cells, also called hemocytoblasts, can become lymphoid progenitors or myeloid progenitors.
The lymphoid progenitors can develop into lymphoblasts, which can then differentiate into some white blood cells like T-lymphocytes, B-lymphocytes, or natural killer cells.
The myeloid progenitors can differentiate into erythrocytes, or red blood cells, megakaryocytes, which eventually give rise to platelets, or myeloblasts, which can then become other white blood cells like monocytes, neutrophils, basophils, and eosinophils.
The most common cause of aplastic anemia is autoimmune destruction of hematopoietic stem cells.
The details of this mechanism are not fully understood, but research shows that there are alterations in the immunologic appearance of hematopoietic stem cells because of genetic disorders, or after exposure to environmental agents, like radiation or toxins.
This means that the hematopoietic stem cells start expressing non-self antigens and the immune system subsequently targets them for destruction.
Aplastic anemia is a rare blood disorder caused by bone marrow failure to produce new blood cells. Even though it's referred to as aplastic anemia, it typically presents with pancytopenia, meaning that all three major blood cell lines - the red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets are affected.
People with aplastic anemia may experience fatigue, shortness of breath, ecchymoses and mucosal bleeding, and frequent infections pallor Aplastic anemia can be caused by a variety of factors, including exposure to radiation or chemotherapy, viral infections, and autoimmune disorders.
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