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Apnea of prematurity
Acute respiratory distress syndrome
Pulmonary changes at high altitude and altitude sickness
Congenital pulmonary airway malformation
Superior vena cava syndrome
Meconium aspiration syndrome
Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome
Sudden infant death syndrome
Transient tachypnea of the newborn
Alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
Restrictive lung diseases
Retropharyngeal and peritonsillar abscesses
Upper respiratory tract infection
Apnea, hypoventilation and pulmonary hypertension: Pathology review
Cystic fibrosis: Pathology review
Deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism: Pathology review
Lung cancer and mesothelioma: Pathology review
Obstructive lung diseases: Pathology review
Pleural effusion, pneumothorax, hemothorax and atelectasis: Pathology review
Pneumonia: Pathology review
Respiratory distress syndrome: Pathology review
Restrictive lung diseases: Pathology review
Tuberculosis: Pathology review
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Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA)
Pulmonary Hypertension Classification (WHO)
Pulmonary Hypertension Diagnosis and Management
Joseph, a 42 year old man comes to the clinic because he’s been waking up many times at night, which makes him very sleepy during the day.
His partner also complains that Joseph has always snored but recently it’s louder than ever.
On physical examination he has a BMI of 35 kilograms per square meter, and has a blood pressure of 140 over 90 millimeters of mercury.
You decide to conduct a sleep study, which reveals a very low partial pressure of oxygen.
Later, a 35 year old woman called Robin also comes to the clinic.
She tells you that, lately, she’s been experiencing shortness of breath and fatigue.
Robin is quite worried, and mentions that she has a congenital heart defect.
On physical examination, she has a mean pulmonary arterial pressure of 28 millimeters of mercury.
You decide to perform an electrocardiogram or ECG test, and a chest X-ray, which show that Robin has right ventricular hypertrophy.
Based on the presentation, both cases seem to have some respiratory disease, associated with some cardiovascular issues.
Now, for your exams, some important conditions include sleep apnea, obesity hypoventilation syndrome, and pulmonary hypertension.
So, let’s begin with sleep apnea!
This is when a person, during their sleep, experiences recurrent and intermittent episodes in which they stop breathing for more than 10 seconds.
In addition, since fresh air is not getting into the lungs, individuals with sleep apnea will have nocturnal hypoxia.
This puts the body under stress, which in turn responds by releasing epinephrine.
Now, the recurrent epinephrine surges have several effects.
Firstly, this wakes up the person so that they can breathe again.
This causes disrupted sleep, which in turn leads to somnolence or sleepiness during the day or while awake.
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