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Acoustic neuroma (schwannoma)
Adult brain tumors
Pediatric brain tumors
Transient ischemic attack
Cavernous sinus thrombosis
Spinocerebellar ataxia (NORD)
Tethered spinal cord syndrome
Lewy body dementia
Normal pressure hydrocephalus
Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis
Central pontine myelinolysis
JC virus (Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy)
Cavernous sinus thrombosis
Idiopathic intracranial hypertension
Opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome (NORD)
Restless legs syndrome
Early infantile epileptic encephalopathy (NORD)
Cauda equina syndrome
Treponema pallidum (Syphilis)
Vitamin B12 deficiency
Concussion and traumatic brain injury
Spinal muscular atrophy
Carpal tunnel syndrome
Thoracic outlet syndrome
Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome
Adult brain tumors: Pathology review
Central nervous system infections: Pathology review
Cerebral vascular disease: Pathology review
Congenital neurological disorders: Pathology review
Dementia: Pathology review
Demyelinating disorders: Pathology review
Headaches: Pathology review
Movement disorders: Pathology review
Neurocutaneous disorders: Pathology review
Neuromuscular junction disorders: Pathology review
Pediatric brain tumors: Pathology review
Seizures: Pathology review
Spinal cord disorders: Pathology review
Traumatic brain injury: Pathology review
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Let's start with some relevant anatomy.
Highest up, are two C-shaped lateral ventricles that lie deep in each cerebral hemisphere.
The cerebral aqueduct, also referred to as the aqueduct of Sylvius, is a channel that carries cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from the third to the fourth ventricle. Aqueductal stenosis means that this channel becomes narrow and does not allow CSF to properly flow through. This can lead to the accumulation of CSF in the brain, a condition known as hydrocephalus. As much CSF accumulates, it leads to brain compression and associated symptoms such as headache, vomiting, nausea, changes in mental status, and seizures. Children with hydrocephalus can present with head enlargement, intellectual disability, and developmental delay. The diagnosis is typically made with a CT scan or MRI.
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