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Let's start with some relevant anatomy.
Highest up, are two C-shaped lateral ventricles that lie deep in each cerebral hemisphere.
The cerebral aqueduct, also referred to as the aqueduct of Sylvius, is a channel that carries cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from the third to the fourth ventricle. Aqueductal stenosis means that this channel becomes narrow and does not allow CSF to properly flow through. This can lead to the accumulation of CSF in the brain, a condition known as hydrocephalus. As much CSF accumulates, it leads to brain compression and associated symptoms such as headache, vomiting, nausea, changes in mental status, and seizures. Children with hydrocephalus can present with head enlargement, intellectual disability, and developmental delay. The diagnosis is typically made with a CT scan or MRI.
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