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Alcohol-induced liver disease
Alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency
Benign liver tumors
Cholestatic liver disease
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
Primary biliary cirrhosis
Primary sclerosing cholangitis
Pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms
Familial adenomatous polyposis
Juvenile polyposis syndrome
Small bowel ischemia and infarction
Protein losing enteropathy
Short bowel syndrome (NORD)
Small bowel bacterial overgrowth syndrome
Diverticulosis and diverticulitis
Irritable bowel syndrome
Cleft lip and palate
Congenital diaphragmatic hernia
Diffuse esophageal spasm
Eosinophilic esophagitis (NORD)
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
Cyclic vomiting syndrome
Gastric dumping syndrome
Dental caries disease
Gingivitis and periodontitis
Temporomandibular joint dysfunction
Appendicitis: Pathology review
Cirrhosis: Pathology review
Colorectal polyps and cancer: Pathology review
Congenital gastrointestinal disorders: Pathology review
Diverticular disease: Pathology review
Esophageal disorders: Pathology review
Gallbladder disorders: Pathology review
Gastrointestinal bleeding: Pathology review
GERD, peptic ulcers, gastritis, and stomach cancer: Pathology review
Inflammatory bowel disease: Pathology review
Jaundice: Pathology review
Malabsorption syndromes: Pathology review
Neuroendocrine tumors of the gastrointestinal system: Pathology review
Pancreatitis: Pathology review
Viral hepatitis: Pathology review
0 / 8 complete
0 / 1 complete
|Leukocyte count||17,000 mm3|
|Platelet count||240,000 mm3|
|Mean corpuscular volume||87 μm3|
|Alanine aminotransferase||190 U/L|
|Aspartate aminotransferase||210 U/L|
|Alkaline phosphatase||412 U/L|
With ascending cholangitis, “cholang-” refers to the bile ducts and “-itis” refers to inflammation which is usually caused by a bacterial infection.
These bacteria are normally found in the intestines and work their way up the bile ducts from the duodenum of the small intestine, so that’s why it’s known as ascending cholangitis, also sometimes acute cholangitis because it can happen over a relatively short period of time.
Normally bacteria from the gut has a pretty tough time ascending up the bile ducts, and this is because bile flows down from the gallbladder, along with some pancreatic juice from the pancreas, into the duodenum, and this tends to flush out any bacteria trying to sneak their way up.
In choledocholithiasis, gallstones form in the gallbladder and occasionally slip out, travel through the cystic bile duct, and then lodge into the common bile duct, obstructing the normal flow of bile.
These gallstones are typically made up of bile components, and risk factors for developing them include things like female sex, obesity, pregnancy, and age, sometimes remembered by the 4 F’s—female, fat, fertile, and forty. Other, less common causes include things that cause stricture, or narrowing of the bile ducts—like a nearby cancerous growth, which can compress the duct as the tumor slowly enlarges, or injury experienced during a laparoscopic procedure.
Once the flow of bile is blocked, bacteria can slowly make their way up the ducts and colonize the biliary system without the risk of being washed away.
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