Asthma: Clinical (To be retired)


00:00 / 00:00



Asthma: Clinical (To be retired)

Medicine and surgery

Allergy and immunology

Antihistamines for allergies


Cardiology, cardiac surgery and vascular surgery

Coronary artery disease: Clinical (To be retired)

Heart failure: Clinical (To be retired)

Syncope: Clinical (To be retired)

Hypertension: Clinical (To be retired)

Hypercholesterolemia: Clinical (To be retired)

Peripheral vascular disease: Clinical (To be retired)

Leg ulcers: Clinical (To be retired)

Adrenergic antagonists: Alpha blockers

Adrenergic antagonists: Beta blockers

ACE inhibitors, ARBs and direct renin inhibitors

Thiazide and thiazide-like diuretics

Calcium channel blockers

Lipid-lowering medications: Statins

Lipid-lowering medications: Fibrates

Miscellaneous lipid-lowering medications

Antiplatelet medications

Dermatology and plastic surgery

Hypersensitivity skin reactions: Clinical (To be retired)

Eczematous rashes: Clinical (To be retired)

Papulosquamous skin disorders: Clinical (To be retired)

Alopecia: Clinical (To be retired)

Hypopigmentation skin disorders: Clinical (To be retired)

Benign hyperpigmented skin lesions: Clinical (To be retired)

Skin cancer: Clinical (To be retired)

Endocrinology and ENT (Otolaryngology)

Diabetes mellitus: Clinical (To be retired)

Hyperthyroidism: Clinical (To be retired)

Hypothyroidism and thyroiditis: Clinical (To be retired)

Dizziness and vertigo: Clinical (To be retired)

Hyperthyroidism medications

Hypothyroidism medications


Hypoglycemics: Insulin secretagogues

Miscellaneous hypoglycemics

Gastroenterology and general surgery

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD): Clinical (To be retired)

Peptic ulcers and stomach cancer: Clinical (To be retired)

Diarrhea: Clinical (To be retired)

Malabsorption: Clinical (To be retired)

Colorectal cancer: Clinical (To be retired)

Diverticular disease: Clinical (To be retired)

Anal conditions: Clinical (To be retired)

Cirrhosis: Clinical (To be retired)

Breast cancer: Clinical (To be retired)

Laxatives and cathartics


Acid reducing medications

Hematology and oncology

Anemia: Clinical (To be retired)

Anticoagulants: Warfarin

Anticoagulants: Direct factor inhibitors

Antiplatelet medications

Infectious diseases

Pneumonia: Clinical (To be retired)

Urinary tract infections: Clinical (To be retired)

Skin and soft tissue infections: Clinical (To be retired)

Protein synthesis inhibitors: Aminoglycosides

Antimetabolites: Sulfonamides and trimethoprim

Miscellaneous cell wall synthesis inhibitors

Protein synthesis inhibitors: Tetracyclines

Cell wall synthesis inhibitors: Penicillins

Miscellaneous protein synthesis inhibitors

Cell wall synthesis inhibitors: Cephalosporins

DNA synthesis inhibitors: Metronidazole

DNA synthesis inhibitors: Fluoroquinolones

Herpesvirus medications



Miscellaneous antifungal medications

Anti-mite and louse medications

Nephrology and urology

Chronic kidney disease: Clinical (To be retired)

Kidney stones: Clinical (To be retired)

Urinary incontinence: Pathology review

ACE inhibitors, ARBs and direct renin inhibitors

PDE5 inhibitors

Adrenergic antagonists: Alpha blockers

Neurology and neurosurgery

Stroke: Clinical (To be retired)

Lower back pain: Clinical (To be retired)

Headaches: Clinical (To be retired)

Migraine medications

Pulmonology and thoracic surgery

Asthma: Clinical (To be retired)

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): Clinical (To be retired)

Lung cancer: Clinical (To be retired)

Antihistamines for allergies

Bronchodilators: Beta 2-agonists and muscarinic antagonists

Bronchodilators: Leukotriene antagonists and methylxanthines

Pulmonary corticosteroids and mast cell inhibitors

Rheumatology and orthopedic surgery

Joint pain: Clinical (To be retired)

Rheumatoid arthritis: Clinical (To be retired)

Lower back pain: Clinical (To be retired)

Anatomy clinical correlates: Clavicle and shoulder

Anatomy clinical correlates: Arm, elbow and forearm

Anatomy clinical correlates: Wrist and hand

Anatomy clinical correlates: Median, ulnar and radial nerves

Anatomy clinical correlates: Bones, joints and muscles of the back

Anatomy clinical correlates: Hip, gluteal region and thigh

Anatomy clinical correlates: Knee

Anatomy clinical correlates: Leg and ankle

Anatomy clinical correlates: Foot

Acetaminophen (Paracetamol)

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs


Opioid agonists, mixed agonist-antagonists and partial agonists

Antigout medications

Non-biologic disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs)

Osteoporosis medications


Asthma: Clinical (To be retired)

USMLE® Step 2 questions

0 / 7 complete


USMLE® Step 2 style questions USMLE

of complete

A 12-year-old boy is brought to the clinic due to recurrent episodes of dyspnea and wheezing over the past several weeks. The patient came to the clinic 3 months ago and was diagnosed with intermittent asthma. He was prescribed an albuterol inhaler and instructed to use it as needed. The patient’s parent states the patient uses the inhaler several times per day and has found mild relief. Temperature is 37.0°C (98.6°F), pulse is 80/min, respirations are 14/min, blood pressure is 110/76 mm Hg, and oxygen saturation is 99% on room air. The patient is resting comfortably. Physical examination reveals scattered wheezes on chest auscultation. Which of the following drugs should be added to this patient’s treatment regimen?  


Content Reviewers

Rishi Desai, MD, MPH


Tanner Marshall, MS

Asthma is an episodic, chronic respiratory disorder characterized by airway obstruction caused by inflammation and hyperresponsiveness of the bronchial smooth muscle. The two golden words in asthma are “reversible”, which means the obstruction can virtually disappear with medications like bronchodilators, and “inducible”, which means the obstruction can occur in response to a variety of stimuli; including allergens like house dust mites, pet animal dander, like cat dander, and pollen, or irritants like tobacco smoke, respiratory tract infections, like a common cold or pneumonia, cold or dry air, and even emotional stress. Now, atopy is the genetic predisposition of an individual towards developing IgE antibodies to otherwise harmless environmental antigens, making that individual strongly predisposed to developing three allergic disorders, eczema or atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis, and asthma, collectively coined the atopic triad. Because of this genetic component, asthma is usually diagnosed in early childhood, and may or may not carry on into adulthood.

So, let’s say a genetically predisposed child is exposed to a potential allergen for the first time. First off, dendritic cells take up the allergen and present it to a type 2 helper T-cell, or Th2 cell. In asthma, Th2 cells make the mistake of thinking this harmless antigen is an allergen, so they release cytokines that stimulate B cells to make IgE antibodies. IgE antibodies then prime mast cells, which cautiously anticipate the next event. When the child is re-exposed to the allergen, the mast cells spill out vasoactive mediators like histamine and leukotrienes, which cause bronchoconstriction and inflammation. Once the child is no longer exposed to the allergen, the immune system relaxes, and everything goes back to normal, until the next event. Now, not all asthma episodes are triggered this way by an allergen. A unique form of asthma is aspirin sensitive asthma, which is characterized by the triad of asthma, nasal polyps, and sensitivity to aspirin or NSAIDs. Aspirin opposes prostaglandin production and tips the balance between prostaglandins and leukotrienes in favor of increased leukotriene production, which promotes smooth muscle contraction of the airways.


Copyright © 2023 Elsevier, except certain content provided by third parties

Cookies are used by this site.

USMLE® is a joint program of the Federation of State Medical Boards (FSMB) and the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME). COMLEX-USA® is a registered trademark of The National Board of Osteopathic Medical Examiners, Inc. NCLEX-RN® is a registered trademark of the National Council of State Boards of Nursing, Inc. Test names and other trademarks are the property of the respective trademark holders. None of the trademark holders are endorsed by nor affiliated with Osmosis or this website.