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Type I hypersensitivity
Autoimmune hemolytic anemia
Hemolytic disease of the newborn
Rheumatic heart disease
Type II hypersensitivity
Systemic lupus erythematosus
Type III hypersensitivity
Type IV hypersensitivity
Common variable immunodeficiency
Hyperimmunoglobulin E syndrome
IgG subclass deficiency
Isolated primary immunoglobulin M deficiency
Selective immunoglobulin A deficiency
Adenosine deaminase deficiency
Hyper IgM syndrome
Severe combined immunodeficiency
Cytomegalovirus infection after transplant (NORD)
Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (NORD)
Chronic granulomatous disease
Leukocyte adhesion deficiency
Blood transfusion reactions and transplant rejection: Pathology review
Immunodeficiencies: Combined T-cell and B-cell disorders: Pathology review
Immunodeficiencies: Phagocyte and complement dysfunction: Pathology review
Immunodeficiencies: T-cell and B-cell disorders: Pathology review
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Living With Asthma | Parents
Persistent Mild Asthma
Persistent Moderate Asthma
Persistent Severe Asthma
Stages of Asthma Treatments
Asthma & Bronchiectasis
asthma p. 708
for asthma p. 708
albuterol for p. 241
β -blockers and p. 245
breast milk and p. 648
cromolyn sodium for p. 409
drug therapy p. 708
eczema and p. 485
epinephrine for p. 241
gastroesophageal reflux disease p. 384
hypertension treatment with p. 320
immunosuppressants p. 118
muscarinic antagonists for p. 240
omalizumab for p. 120
pulsus paradoxus in p. 477
salmeterol for p. 241
type I hypersensitivity p. 110
asthma p. 694
asthma trigger p. 694
Asthma comes from the Greek word for “panting”, which makes sense because it causes chronic inflammation of the airways, making them narrow and more difficult to breathe through.
People with asthma can have asthma exacerbation or asthma attacks, which are usually triggered by something in the environment which causes immune cells to generate inflammation in the lungs which can make them even narrower and potentially be life-threatening.
So, if we take a look at the lungs, you’ve got the trachea, which branches off into right and left bronchi, and then continues to branch into thousands of bronchioles.
In the bronchioles you’ve got the lumen, the mucosa, which includes the inner lining of epithelial cells, as well as the lamina propria, and the submucosa which is where the smooth muscle lives.
The molecular pathway that leads to asthma is actually pretty complex but it is often initiated by an environmental trigger.
In asthma there is often an excessive reaction from type 2 helper cells or Th2 cells against specific allergens.
Th2 cells, are an immune cell subtype, which are known to be involved in asthma, as well as atopic dermatitis, and allergic rhinitis, making up what’s called the atopic triad.
What can happen with asthma is allergens from environmental triggers, like cigarette smoke, are picked up by dendritic cells which present them to a Th2 cell which produce cytokines like IL-4 and IL-5 leading to a number of features of asthma.
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