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B-cell activation and differentiation
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in plasma cells p. 412
as plasma cell cancer p. 412
The immune response is highly specific for each invader, and that’s because the cells of the adaptive immune response have unique receptors that can differentiate friendly bacteria from potentially deadly pathogens from their unique parts - called antigens.
The remainder of the heavy chain makes up the constant region or constant fragment region, also called Fc.
The two heavy chains are linked to one another by disulfide bonds and each heavy chain is also linked to a light chain by a disulfide bond.
Each B cell receptor, has two identical heavy and light chains, resulting in two identical antigen binding sites.
However, the heavy chain actually changes as the B cell develops.
B cells are activated when they encounter an antigen that they recognize. The antigen binds to the B cell's surface receptors, which activates and triggers it to divide and differentiate into an antibody-secreting plasma cell. Plasma cells produce antibodies that bind to the antigen and neutralize it.
The differentiation process is controlled by various factors, including cytokines, lymphokines, and chemokines. Each of these molecules signals the B cells to differentiate into a certain type of plasma cell.
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