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B cells as p. 411
activation p. 101, 103
adaptive immunity p. 97
anergy p. 108
cell surface proteins p. 108
class switching p. 101
disorders of p. 114, 115
functions of p. 99, 411
glucocorticoid effects p. 118
immunodeficiency infections p. 116
in lymph node p. 94
neoplasms p. 437
non-Hodgkin lymphoma p. 436
sirolimus effect p. 118
spleen p. 96
T- and B-cell activation p. 101, 101
B-cell disorders p. 114
The innate immune response is immediate and non-specific, meaning that although it can distinguish an invader from a human cell, it doesn’t distinguish one invader from another invader.
In contrast, the adaptive immune response is highly specific for each invader, and that’s because the cells of the adaptive immune response have receptors that differentiate friendly bacteria and potentially deadly ones from their unique parts - called antigens.
This adaptive immune response takes days to weeks to become activated, but is also responsible for immunologic memory.
Lymphopoiesis has three goals - first, to generate a diverse set of lymphocytes - each with a unique antigen receptor, second, to get rid of lymphocytes that have receptors that are self-reactive meaning that they’ll bind to healthy tissue, and third, to allow lymphocytes that aren’t self-reactive to continue maturing in secondary lymphoid tissue.
To become a B cell, it has to develop into an immature B-cell in the bone marrow and then complete its maturation into an antibody secreting B cell, called a plasma cell, in the lymph nodes and spleen.
So, “B” for bone marrow and “T” for thymus.
B-cell development consists of a series of cellular transitions, from hematopoietic stem cells into immunocompetent B cells. Depending on the step, these processes take place in different organs namely the bone marrow, lymph nodes, and spleen.
Like any other type of blood cell, B cells originate from hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). HSCs give rise to common lymphoid progenitor cells, which in their turn become either B-cells or T-cells. B cell development takes place in a series of six main stages. First, they start as common lymphoid progenitor cells, which become early pro-B cells, then late pro-B cells, next large pre-B cells, then small pre-B cells, and finally, immature B cells. Immature B cells then migrate from the bone marrow into the lymph nodes and spleen to complete the process of maturation.
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