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Introduction to the immune system
MHC class I and MHC class II molecules
B-cell activation and differentiation
Cell-mediated immunity of CD4 cells
Cell-mediated immunity of natural killer and CD8 cells
Somatic hypermutation and affinity maturation
Contracting the immune response and peripheral tolerance
B- and T-cell memory
Anergy, exhaustion, and clonal deletion
Type I hypersensitivity
Type II hypersensitivity
Type III hypersensitivity
Type IV hypersensitivity
Innate immune system
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Cell Surface Proteins - B Cells
B cells as p. 409
activation p. 101, 103
adaptive immunity p. 97
anergy p. 108
cell surface proteins p. 108
class switching p. 101
disorders of p. 114, 115
functions of p. 99, 409
glucocorticoid effects p. 118
immunodeficiency infections p. 116
in lymph node p. 94
neoplasms p. 435
non-Hodgkin lymphoma p. 434
sirolimus effect p. 118
spleen p. 96
T- and B-cell activation p. 101, 101
B-cell disorders p. 114
Your immune system is like the military - with two main branches, the innate immune response and the adaptive immune response.
The innate immune response is immediate and non-specific, meaning that although it can distinguish an invader from a human cell, it doesn’t distinguish one invader from another invader.
In contrast, the adaptive immune response is highly specific for each invader, and that’s because the cells of the adaptive immune response have receptors that differentiate friendly bacteria and potentially deadly ones from their unique parts - called antigens.
This adaptive immune response takes days to weeks to become activated, but is also responsible for immunologic memory.
Now, the key cells of the adaptive immune response are the lymphocytes- the B and T cells -which are generated during lymphopoiesis.
Lymphopoiesis has three goals - first, to generate a diverse set of lymphocytes - each with a unique antigen receptor, second, to get rid of lymphocytes that have receptors that are self-reactive meaning that they’ll bind to healthy tissue, and third, to allow lymphocytes that aren’t self-reactive to continue maturing in secondary lymphoid tissue.
Normally, hematopoietic stem cells, within the bone marrow mature into a common lymphoid progenitor cell, which then becomes either a B-cell or a T-cell.
To become a B cell, it has to develop into an immature B-cell in the bone marrow and then complete its maturation into an antibody secreting B cell, called a plasma cell, in the lymph nodes and spleen.
To become a T cell, it has to migrate to the thymus and become a thymocyte, where it completes its development into a mature T cell.
B-cell development consists of a series of cellular transitions, from hematopoietic stem cells into immunocompetent B cells. Depending on the step, these processes take place in different organs namely the bone marrow, lymph nodes, and spleen.
Like any other type of blood cell, B cells originate from hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). HSCs give rise to common lymphoid progenitor cells, which in their turn become either B-cells or T-cells. B cell development takes place in a series of six main stages. First, they start as common lymphoid progenitor cells, which become early pro-B cells, then late pro-B cells, next large pre-B cells, then small pre-B cells, and finally, immature B cells. Immature B cells then migrate from the bone marrow into the lymph nodes and spleen to complete the process of maturation.
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