Reviewed by Rishi Desai, MD, MPH
Focal nodular hyperplasia
Focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) is a benign tumor of the liver (hepatic tumor), which is the second most prevalent tumor of the liver (the first is hepatic hemangioma). It is usually asymptomatic, rarely grows or bleeds, and has no malignant potential. This tumour was once often resected because it was difficult to distinguish from hepatic adenoma, but with modern multiphase imaging is usually now diagnosed by strict imaging criteria and not resected.
Hepatocellular adenoma (hepatic adenoma, hepadenoma) is an uncommon benign liver tumor associated with the use of hormonal contraception with a high estrogen content. Patients taking higher potency hormones, patients of advanced age, or patients with prolonged duration of use have a significantly increased risk.
Cavernous hemangioma is a type of blood vessel malformation or hemangioma, where a collection of dilated blood vessels form a benign tumor. The cells that form the vessels do not form the necessary junctions with surrounding cells and the structural support from the smooth muscle is hindered, causing leakage into the surrounding tissue. It is the leakage of blood from these vessels that causes a variety of symptoms known to be associated with this disease.