Benign prostatic hyperplasia


00:00 / 00:00



Benign prostatic hyperplasia


Male and female reproductive system disorders

Precocious puberty

Delayed puberty

Klinefelter syndrome

Turner syndrome

Androgen insensitivity syndrome

5-alpha-reductase deficiency

Kallmann syndrome

Male reproductive system disorders

Hypospadias and epispadias

Bladder exstrophy


Penile cancer


Benign prostatic hyperplasia

Prostate cancer


Inguinal hernia




Testicular torsion

Testicular cancer

Erectile dysfunction

Male hypoactive sexual desire disorder

Female reproductive system disorders


Ovarian cyst

Premature ovarian failure

Polycystic ovary syndrome

Ovarian torsion

Krukenberg tumor

Sex cord-gonadal stromal tumor

Surface epithelial-stromal tumor

Germ cell ovarian tumor

Uterine fibroid



Endometrial hyperplasia

Endometrial cancer


Cervical cancer

Pelvic inflammatory disease


Female sexual interest and arousal disorder

Orgasmic dysfunction

Genito-pelvic pain and penetration disorder


Fibrocystic breast changes

Intraductal papilloma

Phyllodes tumor

Paget disease of the breast

Breast cancer

Hyperemesis gravidarum

Gestational hypertension

Preeclampsia & eclampsia

Gestational diabetes

Cervical incompetence

Placenta previa

Placenta accreta

Placental abruption



Potter sequence

Intrauterine growth restriction

Preterm labor

Postpartum hemorrhage


Congenital toxoplasmosis

Congenital cytomegalovirus (NORD)

Congenital syphilis

Neonatal conjunctivitis

Neonatal herpes simplex

Congenital rubella syndrome

Neonatal sepsis

Neonatal meningitis


Gestational trophoblastic disease

Ectopic pregnancy

Fetal hydantoin syndrome

Fetal alcohol syndrome

Reproductive system pathology review

Disorders of sex chromosomes: Pathology review

Prostate disorders and cancer: Pathology review

Testicular tumors: Pathology review

Uterine disorders: Pathology review

Ovarian cysts and tumors: Pathology review

Cervical cancer: Pathology review

Vaginal and vulvar disorders: Pathology review

Benign breast conditions: Pathology review

Breast cancer: Pathology review

Complications during pregnancy: Pathology review

Congenital TORCH infections: Pathology review

Disorders of sexual development and sex hormones: Pathology review

Amenorrhea: Pathology Review

Testicular and scrotal conditions: Pathology review

Sexually transmitted infections: Warts and ulcers: Pathology review

Sexually transmitted infections: Vaginitis and cervicitis: Pathology review

HIV and AIDS: Pathology review

Penile conditions: Pathology review


Benign prostatic hyperplasia


0 / 11 complete

USMLE® Step 1 questions

0 / 3 complete

High Yield Notes

15 pages


Benign prostatic hyperplasia

of complete


USMLE® Step 1 style questions USMLE

of complete

A 67-year-old man presents to the office after an episode of lightheadedness. He experienced this episode last night when he got up from a chair to go to the kitchen and suddenly felt like he was going to fall, but he was able to grab the couch for balance. He does not recall experiencing similar symptoms in the past. He did not lose consciousness or hit his head. The patient was recently started on a new medication for benign prostatic hyperplasia. Other medications include metformin for type 2 diabetes mellitus and ibuprofen for osteoarthritis. Blood pressure is 124/82 mmHg and pulse is 75/min while supine and 80/62 mmHg and 89/min while standing. Digital rectal examination shows a symmetrically enlarged non-tender prostate. Electrocardiogram shows a normal sinus rhythm. Which of the following agents is the most likely cause of this patient’s condition?  

External References

First Aid








α1 -antagonists

benign prostatic hyperplasia p. 727

Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) p. 678, 731

α-blockers for p. 245

hydronephrosis and p. 623

incontinence with p. 624

postrenal azotemia p. 626

tamsulosin for p. 681

treatment p. 727

BPH (benign prostatic hyperplasia)

azotemia with p. 626

hydronephrosis in p. 623

5 α-reductase inhibitors

benign prostatic hyperplasia p. 727

PDE-5 inhibitors p. 678, 681

benign prostatic hyperplasia p. 727



Ahmed A. Abu Ajeene, M.B.B.S

Kaia Chessen, MScBMC

Sam Gillespie, BSc

Evan Debevec-McKenney

In benign prostatic hyperplasia, or BPH, prostatic refers to the prostate gland, hyperplasia means an increase in the number of cells, and benign means that these cells aren’t malignant, so they don’t invade neighboring tissues.

So, benign prostatic hyperplasia is the non-cancerous growth of the prostate gland.

This condition is common in men over 50, and is often considered a normal part of aging.

The prostate is a small gland, about the size and shape of a walnut, that sits under the bladder and in front of the rectum.

The urethra which is the tube through which urine leaves the bladder, goes through the prostate before reaching the penis.

And that part of the urethra is called the prostatic urethra.

The prostate is covered by a capsule of tough connective tissue and smooth muscle.

Beneath this layer, the prostate can be divided into a few zones.

The peripheral zone, which is the outermost posterior section, is the largest of the zone and contain about 70% of the prostate’s glandular tissue.

Moving inward, the next section is the central zone which contains about 25% of the glandular tissue as well as the ejaculatory ducts that join with the prostatic urethra.

Last, is the transitional zone, which contains around 5% of the glandular tissue as well as a portion of the prostatic urethra.

The transitional zone gets its name because it contains transitional cells which are also found in the bladder.

At the microscopic level, each of the tiny glands that make up the prostate is surrounded by a basement membrane made largely of collagen.


  1. "Robbins Basic Pathology" Elsevier (2017)
  2. "Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine 20th Ed" McGraw Hill / Medical (2018)
  3. "Pathophysiology of Disease: An Introduction to Clinical Medicine, 8e" McGraw Hill (2019)
  4. "Current Medical Diagnosis and Treatment 2020" McGraw Hill (2020)
  5. "Management of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia" Annual Review of Medicine (2016)
  6. "Post-micturition dribble in men: causes and treatment" Nursing Standard (2008)
  7. "Post-micturition dribble in men: causes and treatment" Nursing Standard (2008)

Copyright © 2023 Elsevier, except certain content provided by third parties

Cookies are used by this site.

USMLE® is a joint program of the Federation of State Medical Boards (FSMB) and the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME). COMLEX-USA® is a registered trademark of The National Board of Osteopathic Medical Examiners, Inc. NCLEX-RN® is a registered trademark of the National Council of State Boards of Nursing, Inc. Test names and other trademarks are the property of the respective trademark holders. None of the trademark holders are endorsed by nor affiliated with Osmosis or this website.