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Evolution and natural selection
Independent assortment of genes and linkage
Mendelian genetics and punnett squares
Alagille syndrome (NORD)
Familial adenomatous polyposis
Multiple endocrine neoplasia
Polycystic kidney disease
Treacher Collins syndrome
von Hippel-Lindau disease
Gaucher disease (NORD)
Glycogen storage disease type I
Glycogen storage disease type II (NORD)
Glycogen storage disease type III
Glycogen storage disease type IV
Glycogen storage disease type V
Mucopolysaccharide storage disease type 1 (Hurler syndrome) (NORD)
Niemann-Pick disease type C
Niemann-Pick disease types A and B (NORD)
Primary ciliary dyskinesia
Sickle cell disease (NORD)
Tay-Sachs disease (NORD)
Cri du chat syndrome
Fragile X syndrome
Down syndrome (Trisomy 21)
Edwards syndrome (Trisomy 18)
Patau syndrome (Trisomy 13)
Fabry disease (NORD)
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency
Mucopolysaccharide storage disease type 2 (Hunter syndrome) (NORD)
Ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency
Autosomal trisomies: Pathology review
Miscellaneous genetic disorders: Pathology review
Muscular dystrophies and mitochondrial myopathies: Pathology review
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allelic heterogeneity p. 55
intron/exon splicing variants p. 41
β -thalassemia and p. 425
in anemia taxonomy p. 423
target cells in p. 421
Beta thalassemia is a genetic disorder where there’s a deficiency in production of the β-globin chains of hemoglobin, which is the oxygen-carrying protein in red blood cells - or RBCs for short. Beta thalassemia is most commonly seen in Mediterranean, African and South East Asian populations.
Normally, hemoglobin is made up of four globin chains, each bound to a heme group. There are four major globin chain types - alpha (α), beta (β), gamma (γ), and delta (δ). These four globin chains combine in different ways to give rise to different kinds of hemoglobin. First, there’s hemoglobin F (or HbF), where F stands for fetal hemoglobin, and it’s made up of two α-globin and two γ-globin chains. Hemoglobin A (or HbA), the major adult hemoglobin form, is made up of two α-globin and two β-globin chains. Finally, hemoglobin A2 (or HbA2)) accounts for a small fraction of adult hemoglobin in the blood, and it’s made up of two α-globin and two δ-globin chains.
With beta thalassemia, there’s either a partial or complete β-globin chain deficiency, due to a point mutation, which is when a single nucleotide in DNA is replaced by another nucleotide, in the beta globin gene present on chromosome 11. And most often, these mutations occur in two regions of the gene called the promoter sequences and splice sites, which affects the way the mRNA is read. The result is either a reduced, or completely absent beta globin chain synthesis.
And since this is an autosomal recessive disease, two mutated copies of this gene, one from each parent, are needed to develop the disease. If the person has just one mutated gene that codes for either a reduced production or absent production of beta globin chains, then they have beta thalassemia minor. If the person has two mutated genes that code for reduced beta globin chain synthesis, then they’re said to have beta thalassemia intermedia. If the person has two β0 mutations then no beta globin chains are produced, and they’re said to have beta thalassemia major.
When there’s a β-globin chain deficiency, free α-chains accumulate within red blood cells, and they clump together to form intracellular inclusions, which damage the red blood cell’s cell membrane. This causes hemolysis, or red blood cells breakdown in the bone marrow; or extravascular hemolysis, when red blood cells are destroyed by macrophages in the spleen. Hemolysis causes hemoglobin to spill out directly into the plasma, where heme is recycled into iron and unconjugated bilirubin. Over time, the excess unconjugated bilirubin leads to jaundice, and excess iron deposits leads to secondary hemochromatosis.
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