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Alcohol-induced liver disease
Alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency
Benign liver tumors
Cholestatic liver disease
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
Primary biliary cirrhosis
Primary sclerosing cholangitis
Pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms
Familial adenomatous polyposis
Juvenile polyposis syndrome
Small bowel ischemia and infarction
Protein losing enteropathy
Short bowel syndrome (NORD)
Small bowel bacterial overgrowth syndrome
Diverticulosis and diverticulitis
Irritable bowel syndrome
Cleft lip and palate
Congenital diaphragmatic hernia
Diffuse esophageal spasm
Eosinophilic esophagitis (NORD)
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
Cyclic vomiting syndrome
Gastric dumping syndrome
Dental caries disease
Gingivitis and periodontitis
Temporomandibular joint dysfunction
Appendicitis: Pathology review
Cirrhosis: Pathology review
Colorectal polyps and cancer: Pathology review
Congenital gastrointestinal disorders: Pathology review
Diverticular disease: Pathology review
Esophageal disorders: Pathology review
Gallbladder disorders: Pathology review
Gastrointestinal bleeding: Pathology review
GERD, peptic ulcers, gastritis, and stomach cancer: Pathology review
Inflammatory bowel disease: Pathology review
Jaundice: Pathology review
Malabsorption syndromes: Pathology review
Neuroendocrine tumors of the gastrointestinal system: Pathology review
Pancreatitis: Pathology review
Viral hepatitis: Pathology review
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biliary colic p. 403
“Colic” refers to severe abdominal pain, and “biliary” refers to the bile ducts; biliary colic happens when gallstones get lodged in the bile ducts, which causes temporary severe abdominal pain.
Sometimes this is also called a “gallbladder attack” because it can come on pretty quick.
When you eat foods that’re high in fat, like delicious french fries, they make their way to the small intestine, and the fatty acids in the fries stimulate cells which are the enteroendocrine cells or hormone secreting cells of the intestine.
These cells secrete cholecystokinin (also called CCK) into the bloodstream, and those hormones make their way to the gallbladder and tell it to squeeze.
Meanwhile CCK relaxes the sphincter of Oddi so that the bile can make its way to the duodenum.
Now, bile’s a fat emulsifier, essentially helping to break fats or lipids into small “micelles”, and then pancreatic lipase gets in there and helps with break it down into even smaller molecules, which can then be absorbed by the villi of the small intestine.
Now, some people develop gallstones, which are hard stones that form in the gallbladder and are made up of the components of bile.
Risk factors for developing gallstones include things like female sex, obesity, pregnancy, and age, sometimes remembered by the 4 F’s—female, fat, fertile, and forty.
Now, after having a meal, that gallbladder might contract and eject the gallstone into the cystic duct, where it gets lodged.
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