00:00 / 00:00
Non-urothelial bladder cancers
Transitional cell carcinoma
Hypospadias and epispadias
Posterior urethral valves
Lower urinary tract infection
Acute tubular necrosis
Renal cortical necrosis
Renal papillary necrosis
IgA nephropathy (NORD)
Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (NORD)
Minimal change disease
Medullary cystic kidney disease
Medullary sponge kidney
Multicystic dysplastic kidney
Polycystic kidney disease
Chronic kidney disease
Renal tubular acidosis
Nephroblastoma (Wilms tumor)
Renal cell carcinoma
Renal artery stenosis
Acid-base disturbances: Pathology review
Congenital renal disorders: Pathology review
Electrolyte disturbances: Pathology review
Kidney stones: Pathology review
Nephritic syndromes: Pathology review
Nephrotic syndromes: Pathology review
Renal and urinary tract masses: Pathology review
Renal failure: Pathology review
Renal tubular acidosis: Pathology review
Renal tubular defects: Pathology review
Urinary incontinence: Pathology review
Urinary tract infections: Pathology review
0 / 5 complete
Bladder exstrophy is a congenital abnormality that results in an “inside-out” bladder, where the bladder protrudes out of the abdomen, leaving the inside of the bladder exposed to the outside environment.
Normally, in the first trimester, endoderm in the hindgut expands to form the cloaca, which is a temporary structure that connects the urinary, digestive, and reproductive tracts. Separately, the ectoderm forms the anterior abdominal wall.
At around eight weeks of development three important things happen. First, the anterior abdominal wall matures and forms the muscles and connective tissue of the lower abdomen.
Second, the cloaca splits to form the urogenital sinus and rectum, the urogenital sinus later goes on to become the urinary and genital ducts, as well as the urinary bladder.
And third, the cloacal membrane opens up to the outside of the body, creating openings for the urogenital tract and anus.
All right, so bladder exstrophy occurs when the developing bladder and urethra herniate anteriorly and this causes some problems. First, it prevents the normal development of the lower abdominal wall which leaves it open.
Second, it prevents fusion of the pelvis leaving a wide split at the symphysis pubis.
Also, most cases of bladder exstrophy involve epispadias, which is where the urethra exits the top of the penis, but the opposite is not true, not all cases of epispadias involve bladder exstrophy.
Latest on COVID-19
Nurse Practitioner (NP)
Physician Assistant (PA)
Create custom content
Raise the Line Podcast
Copyright © 2024 Elsevier, its licensors, and contributors. All rights are reserved, including those for text and data mining, AI training, and similar technologies.
Cookies are used by this site.
Terms and Conditions
USMLE® is a joint program of the Federation of State Medical Boards (FSMB) and the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME). COMLEX-USA® is a registered trademark of The National Board of Osteopathic Medical Examiners, Inc. NCLEX-RN® is a registered trademark of the National Council of State Boards of Nursing, Inc. Test names and other trademarks are the property of the respective trademark holders. None of the trademark holders are endorsed by nor affiliated with Osmosis or this website.