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Lordosis, kyphosis, and scoliosis
Osteomalacia and rickets
Paget disease of bone
Calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease (pseudogout)
Juvenile idiopathic arthritis
Inclusion body myopathy
Degenerative disc disease
Spinal disc herniation
Achilles tendon rupture
Anterior cruciate ligament injury
Iliotibial band syndrome
Patellar tendon rupture
Patellofemoral pain syndrome
Carpal tunnel syndrome
Thoracic outlet syndrome
Radial head subluxation (Nursemaid elbow)
Rotator cuff tear
Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome
Limited systemic sclerosis (CREST syndrome)
Mixed connective tissue disease
Systemic lupus erythematosus
Developmental dysplasia of the hip
Osgood-Schlatter disease (traction apophysitis)
Slipped capital femoral epiphysis
Back pain: Pathology review
Bone disorders: Pathology review
Bone tumors: Pathology review
Gout and pseudogout: Pathology review
Muscular dystrophies and mitochondrial myopathies: Pathology review
Myalgias and myositis: Pathology review
Neuromuscular junction disorders: Pathology review
Pediatric musculoskeletal disorders: Pathology review
Rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis: Pathology review
Scleroderma: Pathology review
Seronegative and septic arthritis: Pathology review
Sjogren syndrome: Pathology review
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE): Pathology review
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Matt Bissett -- Ewing's sarcoma patient
Giant Cell Tumor
Osteoid Osteoma and Osteoblastoma
Benign Bone Tumors
Malignant Bone Tumors
primary bone tumors p. 469
Bone tumors form when a bone cell divides uncontrollably and forms a mass or tumor.
If the tumor remains confined and doesn’t spread into surrounding tissues, then it’s considered benign.
But if the tumor invades into surrounding tissues and metastasizes or spreads through blood or lymph, then it’s considered malignant.
Malignant tumors can either be primary which is when they arise from the bone cells, or secondary, which is when a tumor developed somewhere else in the body, metastasized, and spread to the bones.
The most common sources of tumor cells that affect the bones but start somewhere else in the body, are the breast, prostate, the lungs, the thyroid, and the kidneys.
Now, even though the bones vary in size and shape, they are all made of the same types of cells, and chief among them are osteoblasts which build up new bone, and osteoclasts which help with bone breakdown or resorption.
Now in addition to these, there are some more primitive cells in the bone marrow called human mesenchymal stem cells and neuroectodermal cells, which have the ability to differentiate into many cell types including nerve, fat, bone, and cartilage cells.
Now, in terms of anatomy, looking at a long- bone like the femur - it has two epiphyses, which are the ends that contribute to joints with other bones.
Between the two epiphyses, is the diaphysis, also called the bone shaft.
In children and adolescents, there is an additional narrow portion between the epiphysis and the diaphysis called the metaphysis.
The metaphysis contains the growth plate, the part of the bone that grows during childhood.
In adults the growth plate has ossified and fused with the diaphysis and the epiphysis.
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