Bones of the lower limb


00:00 / 00:00



Bones of the lower limb

Lower limb


Bones of the lower limb

Fascia, vessels, and nerves of the lower limb

Anatomy of the anterior and medial thigh

Muscles of the gluteal region and posterior thigh

Vessels and nerves of the gluteal region and posterior thigh

Anatomy of the popliteal fossa

Anatomy of the leg

Anatomy of the foot

Anatomy of the hip joint

Anatomy of the knee joint

Anatomy of the tibiofibular joints

Joints of the ankle and foot

Anatomy clinical correlates

Anatomy clinical correlates: Hip, gluteal region and thigh

Anatomy clinical correlates: Knee

Anatomy clinical correlates: Leg and ankle

Anatomy clinical correlates: Foot


Bones of the lower limb

Recall questions

0 / 4 complete



Daniel Afloarei, MD

Sam Gillespie, BSc

Elizabeth Nixon-Shapiro, MSMI, CMI

Ursula Florjanczyk, MScBMC

Megan Gullotto, MSMI

The foot bone’s connected to the...leg bone. And the leg bone’s connected to the... thigh bone! Alright, as a quick recap… just kidding. The lower limbs actually have an incredibly detail-rich skeleton that can be divided into two functional components: the pelvic girdle, which connects the lower limb to the axial skeleton, and the bones of the free lower limb

The pelvic girdle is a bony ring, known as the pelvic ring, consisting of the right and left hip bones, and the sacrum which is common to both the pelvic girdle and axial skeleton. Each hip bone consists of the ilium, ischium, and pubic bone and has three articulations. Posteromedially, it articulates with the sacrum at the sacroiliac joint, anteromedially  it articulates with the other hip bone at the pubic symphysis. And finally, it articulates with the head of the femur to form the hip joint. 

Ok so, the ilium is the largest and most superior part of the hip bone and it can be divided into a body and a wing. The wing, or ala of the ilium,has a lateral and a medial surface, a crest, and two borders: anterior and posterior. Superiorly, there's the iliac crest, which begins at the anterior superior iliac spine and it extends posteriorly to the posterior superior iliac spine. The crest has an internal and external lip, and serves as an important attachment site for muscles and deep fascia. Next, the lateral surface of the ala has three rough arched lines called the posterior, anterior, and inferior gluteal lines, where the gluteal muscles attach, which are the muscles of your bottom. Next, the medial surface can be divided into two by the internal lip of the iliac crest. The anterior portion is concave, and it forms the iliac fossa - which is where the iliacus muscle attaches. 
The posteromedial portion is rough and it presents the auricular surface - which is shaped like an ear and articulates with an identical surface on the sacrum to form the sacroiliac joint.. Next, the anterior border presents the anterior superior iliac spine superiorly, where the inguinal ligament and the sartorius muscle attach; and underneath it there’s the anterior inferior iliac spine, where the straight head of the rectus femoris muscle and the iliofemoral ligament of the hip joint attach. Finally, the posterior border has a posterior superior iliac spine, which is where the oblique portion of the posterior sacroiliac ligaments and the multifidus muscle attach. Underneath it, there’s the posterior inferior iliac spine, below which is a deep notch, the greater sciatic notch. Ok, so the ala continues inferiorly with the body of the ilium, which joins the pubis and ischium to form the acetabulum


There are many bones in the lower limb, including the femur (thigh bone), tibia and fibula ( shin bones), and the bones of the foot. Each of these bones has a specific purpose and function. The femur is the longest and strongest bone in the body, and it serves to support the weight of the upper body. The tibia and fibula are the two long bones in the leg that articulate with the femur to form the knee joint. The bones of the foot provide support for the body weight and enable walking, running, and other forms of locomotion.


Copyright © 2023 Elsevier, except certain content provided by third parties

Cookies are used by this site.

USMLE® is a joint program of the Federation of State Medical Boards (FSMB) and the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME). COMLEX-USA® is a registered trademark of The National Board of Osteopathic Medical Examiners, Inc. NCLEX-RN® is a registered trademark of the National Council of State Boards of Nursing, Inc. Test names and other trademarks are the property of the respective trademark holders. None of the trademark holders are endorsed by nor affiliated with Osmosis or this website.