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Bones of the lower limb
Fascia, vessels, and nerves of the lower limb
Anatomy of the anterior and medial thigh
Muscles of the gluteal region and posterior thigh
Vessels and nerves of the gluteal region and posterior thigh
Anatomy of the popliteal fossa
Anatomy of the leg
Anatomy of the foot
Anatomy of the hip joint
Anatomy of the knee joint
Anatomy of the tibiofibular joints
Joints of the ankle and foot
Anatomy clinical correlates: Hip, gluteal region and thigh
Anatomy clinical correlates: Knee
Anatomy clinical correlates: Leg and ankle
Anatomy clinical correlates: Foot
Bones of the lower limb
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Daniel Afloarei, MD
Sam Gillespie, BSc
Elizabeth Nixon-Shapiro, MSMI, CMI
Ursula Florjanczyk, MScBMC
Megan Gullotto, MSMI
The foot bone’s connected to the...leg bone. And the leg bone’s connected to the... thigh bone! Alright, as a quick recap… just kidding. The lower limbs actually have an incredibly detail-rich skeleton that can be divided into two functional components: the pelvic girdle, which connects the lower limb to the axial skeleton, and the bones of the free lower limb.
The pelvic girdle is a bony ring, known as the pelvic ring, consisting of the right and left hip bones, and the sacrum which is common to both the pelvic girdle and axial skeleton. Each hip bone consists of the ilium, ischium, and pubic bone and has three articulations. Posteromedially, it articulates with the sacrum at the sacroiliac joint, anteromedially it articulates with the other hip bone at the pubic symphysis. And finally, it articulates with the head of the femur to form the hip joint.
Ok so, the ilium is the largest and most superior part of the hip bone and it can be divided into a body and a wing. The wing, or ala of the ilium,has a lateral and a medial surface, a crest, and two borders: anterior and posterior. Superiorly, there's the iliac crest, which begins at the anterior superior iliac spine and it extends posteriorly to the posterior superior iliac spine. The crest has an internal and external lip, and serves as an important attachment site for muscles and deep fascia. Next, the lateral surface of the ala has three rough arched lines called the posterior, anterior, and inferior gluteal lines, where the gluteal muscles attach, which are the muscles of your bottom. Next, the medial surface can be divided into two by the internal lip of the iliac crest. The anterior portion is concave, and it forms the iliac fossa - which is where the iliacus muscle attaches. The posteromedial portion is rough and it presents the auricular surface - which is shaped like an ear and articulates with an identical surface on the sacrum to form the sacroiliac joint.. Next, the anterior border presents the anterior superior iliac spine superiorly, where the inguinal ligament and the sartorius muscle attach; and underneath it there’s the anterior inferior iliac spine, where the straight head of the rectus femoris muscle and the iliofemoral ligament of the hip joint attach. Finally, the posterior border has a posterior superior iliac spine, which is where the oblique portion of the posterior sacroiliac ligaments and the multifidus muscle attach. Underneath it, there’s the posterior inferior iliac spine, below which is a deep notch, the greater sciatic notch. Ok, so the ala continues inferiorly with the body of the ilium, which joins the pubis and ischium to form the acetabulum.
There are many bones in the lower limb, including the femur (thigh bone), tibia and fibula ( shin bones), and the bones of the foot. Each of these bones has a specific purpose and function. The femur is the longest and strongest bone in the body, and it serves to support the weight of the upper body. The tibia and fibula are the two long bones in the leg that articulate with the femur to form the knee joint. The bones of the foot provide support for the body weight and enable walking, running, and other forms of locomotion.
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