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Fibrocystic breast changes
Paget disease of the breast
Intrauterine growth restriction
Pelvic inflammatory disease
Gestational trophoblastic disease
Germ cell ovarian tumor
Polycystic ovary syndrome
Premature ovarian failure
Sex cord-gonadal stromal tumor
Surface epithelial-stromal tumor
Congenital cytomegalovirus (NORD)
Congenital rubella syndrome
Neonatal herpes simplex
Preeclampsia & eclampsia
Female sexual interest and arousal disorder
Genito-pelvic pain and penetration disorder
Fetal alcohol syndrome
Fetal hydantoin syndrome
Androgen insensitivity syndrome
Hypospadias and epispadias
Benign prostatic hyperplasia
Male hypoactive sexual desire disorder
Amenorrhea: Pathology review
Benign breast conditions: Pathology review
Breast cancer: Pathology review
Cervical cancer: Pathology review
Complications during pregnancy: Pathology review
Congenital TORCH infections: Pathology review
Disorders of sex chromosomes: Pathology review
Disorders of sexual development and sex hormones: Pathology review
HIV and AIDS: Pathology review
Ovarian cysts and tumors: Pathology review
Penile conditions: Pathology review
Prostate disorders and cancer: Pathology review
Sexually transmitted infections: Vaginitis and cervicitis: Pathology review
Sexually transmitted infections: Warts and ulcers: Pathology review
Testicular and scrotal conditions: Pathology review
Testicular tumors: Pathology review
Uterine disorders: Pathology review
Vaginal and vulvar disorders: Pathology review
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Breast Cancer Diagnosis
Breast Cancer Interventions
Ductal Carcinoma in Situ of Breast
Inflammatory Carcinoma of Breast
Invasive Ductal Carcinoma of Breast
Invasive Lobular Carcinoma of Breast
Lobular Carcinoma in Situ of Breast
64-year-old Cassie comes to the office because of a new breast mass that she found on her monthly self-examination.
A mammogram shows microcalcification clusters so an excisional biopsy is performed.
Pathology shows high-grade cells with central necrosis in the lumen and dystrophic calcification in the center of the ducts without invasion of the basement membrane.
Later that day, a 58-year-old named Linda comes to the physician's office with eczematous dermatitis of the left nipple and areolar area for the past 24 months.
Her history reveals that the lesion has been treated unsuccessfully with topical steroids and has progressively distorted the nipple, resulting in nipple inversion.
Physical examination reveals scaly, crusted, and deformed left nipple with multiple plaques overlying the surrounding areola.
At first glance, you’d think Cassie and Linda have nothing in common, but the fact is, they have different forms of breast cancer!
Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women and it’s typically seen in postmenopausal women, over 50 years of age.
Most breast cancers are adenocarcinomas and they typically arise from the terminal duct lobular units.
Breast cancer can present as a palpable hard mass, most commonly located in the upper outer quadrant of the breast.
Now, some breast cancers can be associated with amplification and overexpression of genes for estrogen receptors, progesterone receptors, and HER2/neu receptors.
For your exam, you have to remember that these receptors are important therapeutic and prognostic factors of breast cancer.
In other words, breast cancers that are associated with overexpression of estrogen and progesterone receptors are more susceptible to anti-estrogen medications, such as tamoxifen.
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