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Fibrocystic breast changes
Paget disease of the breast
Intrauterine growth restriction
Pelvic inflammatory disease
Gestational trophoblastic disease
Germ cell ovarian tumor
Polycystic ovary syndrome
Premature ovarian failure
Sex cord-gonadal stromal tumor
Surface epithelial-stromal tumor
Congenital cytomegalovirus (NORD)
Congenital rubella syndrome
Neonatal herpes simplex
Preeclampsia & eclampsia
Female sexual interest and arousal disorder
Genito-pelvic pain and penetration disorder
Fetal alcohol syndrome
Fetal hydantoin syndrome
Androgen insensitivity syndrome
Hypospadias and epispadias
Benign prostatic hyperplasia
Male hypoactive sexual desire disorder
Amenorrhea: Pathology review
Benign breast conditions: Pathology review
Breast cancer: Pathology review
Cervical cancer: Pathology review
Complications during pregnancy: Pathology review
Congenital TORCH infections: Pathology review
Disorders of sex chromosomes: Pathology review
Disorders of sexual development and sex hormones: Pathology review
HIV and AIDS: Pathology review
Ovarian cysts and tumors: Pathology review
Penile conditions: Pathology review
Prostate disorders and cancer: Pathology review
Sexually transmitted infections: Vaginitis and cervicitis: Pathology review
Sexually transmitted infections: Warts and ulcers: Pathology review
Testicular and scrotal conditions: Pathology review
Testicular tumors: Pathology review
Uterine disorders: Pathology review
Vaginal and vulvar disorders: Pathology review
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I have Cancer - Diagnosis of Stage 1 Invasive Ductal Breast Cancer
Breast Cancer Diagnosis
Breast Cancer Interventions
Ductal Carcinoma in Situ of Breast
Inflammatory Carcinoma of Breast
Invasive Ductal Carcinoma of Breast
Invasive Lobular Carcinoma of Breast
Lobular Carcinoma in Situ of Breast
breast cancer p. 727
breast cancer and p. 670
hypercalcemia and p. 219
incidence/mortality of p. 202
key associations p. 736
oncogenes and p. 220
paclitaxel for p. 445
paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration and p. 219
postmenopausal women p. 727
tamoxifen for p. 446
trastuzumab for p. 446
tumor suppressor genes and p. 220
aromatase inhibitors for p. 676
breastfeeding and p. 648
hormonal contraception contraindication p. 677
benign breast tumors p. 669
breast cancer p. 670
malignant breast tumors p. 670
breast cancer risks p. 670
for breast cancer p. 727
Breast cancer, or breast carcinoma, is an uncontrolled growth of epithelial cells within the breast. It’s the second most common cancer in women, but can also, on rare occasion, affect men as well.
Breast cancer is also the second leading cause of cancer deaths in women after lung cancer. This is largely due to the fact that oftentimes breast cancers don’t cause any pain or discomfort until they’ve spread to nearby tissues.
The breasts are milk-producing glands that sit on the chest wall, on either side of the breast-bone. They lie on top of the ribs and the pectoral muscles, and they’re divided into three main parts.
The glandular tissue that makes the milk, is made up of 15 to 20 lobules. Inside each of these lie a bunch of grape-like structures called the alveoli, which are modified sweat glands surrounded by a basement membrane made largely of collagen.
Zooming in on the alveoli, there’s a layer of alveolar cells that secrete breast milk into the lumen which is the space in the center of the gland.
Wrapping around the alveolus are special myoepithelial cells that squeeze down and push the milk out of the lumen of the alveolus, down the lactiferous ducts, and out one of the pores on the nipple.
Now, surrounding the glandular tissue is the stroma, which contains adipose or fat tissue, and this makes up the majority of the breast.
Suspensory ligaments called Cooperʼs ligaments, run through the stroma and help keep it in place. These ligaments attach to the inner surface of the breast skin on one end and the pectoralis muscles on the other.
Just below the skin over the breast, there’s a network of tiny lymphatic vessels that drain the lymph, which is a fluid containing cellular waste products and white blood cells. These lymphatic vessels mainly drain into a group of lymph nodes in the axilla, or the armpit.
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